According to expectancy-value theory, behavior is a function of the expectancies one has and the value of the goal toward which one is working. Such an approach predicts that, when more than one behavior is possible, the behavior chosen will be the one with the largest combination of expected success and value. Expectancy-value theories hold that people are goal-oriented beings. The behaviors they perform in response to their beliefs and values are undertaken to achieve some end. However, although expectancy- value theory can be used to explain central concepts in uses and gratifications research, there are other factors that influence the process.
In general, persons with low self-esteem are motivated more by self-maintenance than by self-enhancement (Covington & Beery, 1976). Self-awareness theory is motivation to change arises from one 's awareness of an incongruity between one 's idealized self-concept and one 's self-image. The individual 's evaluation of self as less than desirable motivates him or her to improve his/her behavior in order to maintain self-esteem. At first glance, "self-awareness theory" appears to be a cognitive consistency theory; but in fact the self-esteem motive, activated by a negative self-evaluation, is offered as the major impetus for change (Hull & Levy, 1979). Duval & Wicklund emphasize self-focused attention as the initial step
A model is based on its basic assumptions. In MOHO, it is believed that a human being is a complex system which is active and have a desire for doing. The personal and environment factors influence each other. In PEOP, there is a basic belief that people are naturally motivated to explore their world and demonstrate mastery in it (Baum and Christiansen, 2011). Considering the structures of these two models, they have shown their own characteristics, as well as some similarities and differences.
Self-image – It refers to the perception and opinion of oneself; self-image is highly influenced by the exposure of external factors such as friends, family, and the media. 2. Self-esteem and self-worth – It refers to the value of oneself based on the approval and acceptance of oneself essentially influenced by internal and external factors. The higher the self-esteem and self-worth, the greater the confidence and optimism in their believe in their abilities and skills. The lower the self – esteem and self-worth, the lower the confidence and optimism in their abilities and skills.
Capital-in-general as used by Bourdieu does indeed involve power, but it is a distinctive kind of power. It involves a set of different kinds of claims that can be made on the actions of others. For instance, social capital consists of claims to reciprocity and solidarity from particular others. What is fundamental to social capital, however, is that explicit claims are normally excluded from the performances within which they are made, so that the power over the actions of others is radically distinct from exercises of power utilizing the discourse and apparatus of command (Bourdieu 1986:241). Hence, this study relies on CMA to understand the power of culture on the connection between social structure and health behaviour regarding the prevention of diseases (Singer 1995:81; Morsy 1996 as quoted by Singer 2004:26).
It also provides direction and focus that, if it was lacking, would result in confusion and ambiguity from the use of transformational behaviours. Contingent reward is the timely positive response to desired performance (Hinkin and Schriesheim 2008:501). The emotional intelligence leadership style assumes that most managers or leaders have a reasonable level of intelligence, however, their emotional response to situations differentiates them from others, not their intelligence (Müller and Turner, 2007). This emotional intelligence leadership style argues that it’s primarily based on the leader’s competencies profile which is a combination of personal attributes such as sensitivity and intuitiveness and areas of competency in terms of technical skills and knowledge (Geoghegan and Dulewicz, 2008). Daniel Goleman, Boyatzis and McKee identified four dimensions of emotional intelligence: Teamwork and
Manifesto Outline Introduction: Human societies are characterized by patterns of relationships (social relations) between individuals who share a distinctive culture and environment (need to paraphrase definition). Different phenomenon contribute to the creation of relations between people in an environment. Appropriation is one of these. There are a variety of ways in which the built environment can encourage appropriation; leftover spaces (lo.s.) is one example.
However, an organisation may also gain legitimacy, not on the basis of direct favourable exchanges, but because the organisation responds to the larger interests of their audience. This is known as influence legitimacy. The last form of pragmatic legitimacy is dispositional legitimacy, which results from audiences associating organisations with personalities, and their tendency to support organisations which share their values. To conclude, pragmatic legitimacy thus rests on judgements about whether the organisation benefits the evaluator, and is based on self-interest and materialistic power-dependence relations. 46 47
Likewise, high self-esteems tend to underscore the confirmatory when met with disappointment. The generalized finding of self-esteem is that low self-esteems are more easily inclined to external dynamics. Low self-esteem is reliant on the acknowledgment of positive appraisals from others. The offshoots are that they are probably having more high self-esteems to ask for consent from others and more suscepttical to follow to the beliefs and behaviors of others. At high echelon, low self-esteems are concerned with satisfying others and take unpopular actions’ than those of high self-esteems.
Thomas and Velthouse (1990) viewed intrinsic motivation as essentially concerned with positively valued experiences derived directly from a given task. Factors concerning Intrinsic motivation include curiosity, challenge, and social interaction. On the other hand, Extrinsic motivational factors include recognition, competition, and work avoidance. Individuals who have Intrinsic motivation tend to perform better without external rewards and recognition and vice versa with extrinsic motivation. Both do affect the Self-Empowerment level of an