Theoretical Framework Of Volunteering

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Literature Research Theoretical Framework Volunteerism: Existing literature on volunteering has identified four important dimensions: free choice, absence of remuneration, structure and intended beneficiaries. The first dimension suggests that an individual is more likely to be viewed as a volunteer when performing the act by free choice than coercion. Secondly, volunteering acts should not have any rewards in return and sometimes require volunteers to contribute financially such as making donations and paying for own expenses. Thirdly, the context under which the activity is performed is important too, whether it is civic participation, informal volunteering or formal volunteering. Informal volunteering is often not seen by the public to…show more content…
These needs and dynamics within social environment form the basis for an individual’s self-motivation. The motivation of an individual’s behaviour can largely be dependent on the degree of control by self-determination or control. Organismic integration theory (OIT) posits that self-determination exists on a continuum ranging from amotivation, external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, integrated regulation and intrinsic motivation. Individuals do not necessarily move across the continuum in a linear manner but could vary according to the environment. The development of SDT has helped to explain for the effects of social environment on intrinsic motivation, development of autonomous extrinsic motivation through internalization and integration, differences in individuals in motivational orientations and the functioning of essential fundamental needs for motivation. To date, SDT has served as a useful framework to examine issues in areas regarding education, work motivation, sport and exercise and prosocial…show more content…
The autonomy orientation is about one responding towards internal and external cues that gives them an autonomy-supportive or informational significance to be more autonomous. The controlled motivation refers to one interpreting cues as controls and demands and to being controlled in general at the person level. Lastly, the impersonal orientation refers to orienting toward cues as indicators of incompetence and to being generally amotivated. The Goal Content Theory relating to intrinsic goals and extrinsic goals also played an important role to one’s well-being under the SDT framework. Intrinsic goals such as personal growth, affiliation and community whereas extrinsic goals included wealth, fame and image. Results from studies showed that people who rated extrinsic goals over intrinsic goals were found to have less self-actualisation and vitality, facing more depression, anxiety and narcissism. On the other hand, people who rated intrinsic goals were found to have greater well-being, having increased autonomy and relatedness. An example cited was materialists where they spend effort and time accumulating on items that fulfil their wants but do not satisfy their basic needs. The importance of context plays an important role again as emphasis is placed on having an autonomy-supportive environment rather than a controlling

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