Theoretical Framework Of Workplace Bullying

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Theoretical Framework
This study is postulated on the theories, concepts and principles regarding on Workplace Bullying and its impact on employees productivity and performance. According to Einarsen’s conceptual framework Model (see Figure 1) of the nature and cause of workplace bullying (Einarsen 2003; as cited in Einarsen, 2005), three elements can describe the causes of workplace bullying: individual, social and organizational. Hoel and Stalin (2003; as cited in Lewis, 2004) suggested that there are four antecedents to organizational causes of workplace bullying, namely: the changing nature of work, how work is organized, the organizational culture, and leadership. The changing nature of work can be attributed to globalization, mergers and the current economic recession, among others (McCarthy, 2003). ‘How work is organized’ and the ‘leadership style’ of the organization can produce role conflict and poor work control (Einarsen, Raknes and Matthiesen, 1994; as cited in Jennifer, 2000). Thus, it is up to the culture of the organization to set a precedent for unambiguous work flow, higher production, and zero tolerance for workplace bullying.
Other researchers have found that the “work environment and organizational climate (Einarsen et al., 1994; Vartia, 1996); job content and social work environment (Zapf, Knorz and Kulla, 1996); work organization and poor conflict management (Einarsen and Skogstad, 1996; Leymann, 1996); inappropriate managerial behavior (Crawford,

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