1995, Kunin and Lawton 1996, Schwartz et al. 2000, Hector et al. 2001b, Minns et al. 2001, Sax and Gaines 2003). These explanations are persuasive in their own right, but ecologists have increased some additional to deal with, like what would be the resultant of alteration of biodiversity on ecosystem properties, such as productivity, carbon storage, hydrology, and nutrient cycling?
(Greene, 2007). It is a model that focuses on the reciprocity of person-environment exchanges, in which each shapes and influences the other overtime. ( Saleebey, 1983). GROUP DEFINITION Ecological model is an approach that examines the relationship between an individual and their environment; how they interact with each other in a reciprocal manner. HISTORY OF ECOLOGICAL MODEL MAJOR PROPONENTS This perspective is derived from earlier ecological theories that were popular in the fields of ; Sociology Psychology Anthropology
The main question asked is “how much” behavior is due to heredity and “how much” to the environment” (McLeod 1). However, McLeod proposes that this idea is incorrect because of complexity—saying there are many variables, which are not all the same, composed heredity and environment. “The ‘how much’ question assumes that the variables can all be expressed numerically and that the issue can be resolved in a quantitative manner. The reality is that nature and culture interact in a host of qualitatively different ways” (McLeod 1). He then address the current consensus for the debate of nature versus nurture; the idea that nature and nurture do not work separately mostly accepted and psychologists aim to focus on observing how nature and nurture work together (1).
Above is a model showing the four different types of acculturating, from Berry’s “Immigration, Acculturation, and Adaptation” Journal of Applied Psychology (1997). This diagram shows the different responses to acculturation, where the value of maintaining ‘old’ culture is essentially balanced with exposure and adaptations to ‘new’ cultures. These choices of one response over another can drastically change, depending on the shifting of stressors that contribute to the responses. The four types of acculturating strategies, outlined by John Berry, are assimilation, integration, separation, and marginalization which span cross-culturally on the sociocultural level of analysis. These variations of acculturation strategies “ consist of two (usually
As an ecologist with the Zimbabwe Parks and Wildlife Management Authority, I play a dual role of being the technical expert in the field and an advisor to management on conservation issues. Technical roles include ensuring maintenance of biodiversity through conservation of ecosystems, species and ecological processes. This involves planning management, research, monitoring and extension work within and outside protected areas. Undertaking problem orientated research, which will have an impact on wildlife conservation and policy; preparation of park plans; ensuring sustainable utilisation; monitoring and establishing databases and publishing of scientific articles. Conducting population surveys; Environmental Impact Assessments are part of the work I do.
Selective mutism is an internalizing behavior problem that is challenging to assess and intervene. Selective mutism is characterized by the occurrence of speech in specific situations or with specific people. These individual have functional speech and the ability to comprehend language. Selective mutism is difficult to assess and implement effective interventions due to the environmental factors that influence behavior. There is an urgency to find effective intervention due to the fact that other behavior problems are likely to develop if left untreated and due to duration is dependent on the intervention outcomes.
The DHRAM scores are subjective by assigning different impact scores based on the defined threshold absolute percentage change of mean and the coefficient of variation (CV). In this study, the Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation (FCE) method was used to objectively rank the overall degree of hydrologic alteration evaluated either by the IHA method or by the eco-statistical method. Details of this application will be discussed in a subsequent paper. In this study, the FCE method was used to calculate fuzzy vectors from the RVA of each IHA parameter, the indices of seasonal eco-surplus and eco-deficit, and from the seasonal indices showing only eco-surplus. A higher value of the fuzzy vector represents greater overall hydrological
The theory suggests that a person's intention to disclose personal information is based on a calculus of behavior (i.e., privacy calculus) in which potentially competing factors are weighed in light of possible outcomes. Specifically, consumers perform the risk-benefit analysis in the privacy calculus and decide whether to disclose information based on the net outcomes (Bagozzi, 2000). The utility maximization theory is the variation of economic exchange theories in the social exchange domain (Solis, 2010). The tenet of the theory is to maximize the total utility or satisfaction by a person. In terms of information privacy, it depicts the utility function of information disclosure as the difference between expected benefits (such as monetary incentive and personalized service) and expected costs (such as consumer privacy concerns and risks), and suggests an optimal or equilibrium point between the two, which determines the amount of information the person is willing to
The highest risk scenarios are liable to unfold when there is both a high probability of the establishment of invasive species in recipient river systems and associated adverse ecological impacts. In most tropical rivers the genuine impact of introduced species is arduous to ascertain because data on the community structure and functioning afore the preludes are often unavailable. Despite this, the well-documented prosperity of invasive species in invading novel tropical river systems global and associated deleterious effects, provide vigorous circumstantial evidence to fortify the hypothesis of incremented extinction rates and hybridisation risk to indigenous species in recipient river systems as a result of invasive species incursions. The mechanism of potential adverse ecological impact of invasive species include competition for victuals and the space obligatory for spawning. In areas where it has become established, invasive species have been shown to rapidly displace indigenous species through competitive omission, to the extent that some populations have become locally extinct.
Data collection and methods: Several different research approaches have been developed to examine the vulnerability of a particular community to environmental change (Adger and Vincent, 2005; Bene, 2009; Brooks et al., 2005; Cutter, 1996; Yohe and Tol, 2002). These approaches are typically based on three key dimensions of vulnerability: (1) exposure; (2) sensitivity; and (3) adaptive capacity. A purposive sampling will be conducted to collect the data. The purposive sampling is an appropriate strategy for exploratory studies of communities (Agrawal, 2001). .
Spatially explicit spread models are considered to require too many poorly known parameters for their projections to be as reliable in practice (Hartig et al. 2011). In addition, the diversity of uses and application oof these models pointed at inherent limitations to the predictability of the phenomenon (Caley et al. 2008). New analytical methods are being developed to provide formal quantitative measurement of uncertainty (Makowski, 2013) and to address the perceived risk aversion of some biosecurity decision-makers (Yemshanov et al.