This theory deals with the dependent variables the process of persuasion but they were split until they became 12. The information-processing theory gives an overview of the attitude change and reminds us to involve number of components. It also makes us remember that the attitude change is difficult and the successful attempts need to accomplish the effects of these previous steps. The second model is the heuristic-systematic model; it is classified into two types; the systematic processing and the heuristic processing. The systematic processing claims that the examination of a message has effort and carefulness and it can be affected by situational variables.
First process involves, the perception of the individual about the situation or the event and the importance that individual gives to them. In the second process, the person thinks how to cope with that situation or event. The main idea in these processes is to find to what degree the individual has control and coping mechanism to get over them (Folkman & Lazarus, 1980). In the first process, the person may not see the stressors as important; however, in the second process she can use her conflict handling mode to cope. For example, conflicts can be seen as a stressor (McGrath, 1976) and the conflict handling mode of the person may determine to what degree the person exposes to the stressors (Friedman et al., 2000).
It examines how texts are used to reflect and maintain dominant ideologies while suppressing those which do not fall within these ideologies. Moreover, discourse analysis is an interpretive process and is, therefore, subjective. As a result, the interpretation formed from the researcher’s analysis as an informed reader of text may differ from the interpretation of other scholars who plan to study the same text and, indeed, from the perception of the show’s audience. Discourse analysis looks at the exercise of power and knowledge and its synthesis in dominant culture. In this study, the researcher will use the four guide questions posed by Dr. Estrada-Claudio (2002) in order to analyze the Friends text.
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is an important look at the methods humans use in our interaction with our shared environments and how we relate differently to shared experiences (Cohen, D., Cohen M., Cross, H., 1981). Differences in how individuals relate to and understand our surroundings are displayed and sorted using scales for several fields. Extroversion and introversion are determined and assigned to this indicator using either E or I. A clear definition between sensing and intuition is also defined by the assignment of S or N. Also, thinking and feeling are compared and determined adding the letters of either T or F to the result. The last letter in ones conformed profile will include either J or P for judging compared to perception.
Researchers argue about the type of personality and what trait is important in sojourner adjustment. According to previous research by Pierce, Sarason and Sarason (1996) that the role of personality characteristics, personal relationships and situational parameters are combined to produce a robust coping style. Ward, Leong & Low (2004) discussed that the cross-cultural literature contains much evidence and armchair theories about adaptive personality qualities and the acculturative experience. Authoritarianism, rigidity, and ethnocentrism, have been assumed to impede psychological adjustment during cross-cultural transition (Locke & Feinsod, 1982), whereas extraversion and sensitivity, the embodiments of the “universal communicator,” are thought to facilitate adaptation (Gardner, 1962). Despite extensive theorizing, however, empirical evidence has been mixed.
Thus, the danger of persistent subjectivity and partiality is defined by its ability to reinstate traditionally entrenched decision making corridors, confining experts to limited bureaucratic progress. Ultimately, where possible, organisations must seek to preserve their reputation through exaggerated attention towards more prevalent policy in an attempt to suppress the immediate threat of reputational damage via media exposure, often at the expense of objectivity and impartiality. Further validating this initial suspicion, the intrusion of subjectivity and partiality in ‘risk-based policy making’ is well documented. Namely, the National Research Council, in its investigation of quantitative risk assessments, ‘estimated conservatively that at least fifty opportunities for the insinuation of non-scientific values exist during technical risk assessment’ (Rothstein et Downer, 2008, 21), and noted that “policy considerations inevitably effect, and perhaps determine, some of the choices…” (National Research Council, 1983, 33) as a
Human thought is not neutral, but everything we think and communicate is constructed from a particular point of view, whether we realise it or not” (Steinberg and Angelopulo, 2015, p.34). This statement relates to the constructivist approach to understanding communication, especially is humans. The constructivist approach can be defined as our knowledge, thoughts and view of the world, these views aren’t predetermined rather developed and constructed as we move through the world. However, it may be biased. Meaning is a key element in the constructivist approach.
Communication is a process of exchanging information by speaking, writing, or using some other medium. By using a semiotic linguistic theory, Liska and Cronkhite defined communication as the exchange of certain types of signs. This shows that everyday view of communication is quite different with the view of communication taken by a scholar. There are plenty of theories definition by scholars. Some other scholars defined a theory as a set of interrelated constructs, definitions, and propositions that present as the systematic view of phenomena with the purpose of explaining and predicting a phenomenon.
However, Wang (2001) argues that since monogloss, like heterogloss, contains the attitude and the sub/objectivity of the speaker/writer, it should also have these hedging means (e.g., I think). Therefore monogloss and heterogloss are not differentiated in the current study and the system elaborated as below is applied to both sources of voices. According to their intersubjective functionality, engagement can be divided into two broad categories, namely dialogic expansion and dialogic contraction. The distinction lays in the allowances, challenge or rejection for dialogically alternative voices and stances. Dialogic contraction closes down the space for dialogic alternatives via: 1. rejecting other positions and stances, which is realized by denying the
240). Crystal highlighted three areas of interest in defining pragmatics; ‘actual use of language, encoding, and decoding’ of language by speakers and hearers. Taken into account this definition, one can maintain that the best tool for actualizing these areas of interest might be the notion of speech acts. Austin (1962) defined speech acts as an utterance which convey locutionary, illocutionary, and perlocutionary acts. Performing speech acts like refusal, request, apology, recommendations and …, to some extent, is problematic for the L2 learners (see Ellis, 2007) and since speech acts could be considered as a main tool for eliciting polite behaviors in communicational contexts, they must not be neglected in language research, pedagogy, and