The hypothesis only partially supported, because arginine and threonine were both found more than once, and those are essential to plants. On the contrary, the other amino acids found were not considered important. This is unexpected and must be due to errors within the experiment. Most likely, the method of transferring the leaf pigment onto the paper caused the most significant error. Due to the lack of substance to separate, the Rf values were skewed smaller because there was not enough pigment to move the correct distance to represent the amino acid.
Critical theory: This paradigm shows that reality can be changed through human intervention and research. According to McCarthy, 1991, “Critical theory is a broad tradition based upon the use of the critique as a method of investigation”. This social theory whether worked in an educational research, literature, philosophy, art and business is very important to change the world’s view. It is a form of rationalism. Rationalism is a sort of thought in which a society thinks and transforms the environment.
Natural Humans The human condition is a subjective term used to encompass the things that differentiate humans from animals. Through the philosophy of John Locke and Jean Jacques Rousseau, their beliefs of what is natural shapes their insight into the human condition. Locke believes that nature is governed by a general law of reason and that people are free, equal, and independent in this life. Whereas Rousseau believes that a hypothetical nature is ideal yet humans are corrupted through the formation of societies. This basis in the belief of nature shapes Locke’s and Rousseau’s beliefs regarding learning, dependency, social interaction, and living when exploring the human condition.
Modern science is typically subdivided into the natural sciences, which study the material world, the social sciences which study people and societies, and the formal sciences like mathematics. The formal sciences are often excluded as they do not depend on empirical observations.  We have to keep in mind that science helps us describe how the world is, but it cannot make any judgments about whether that state of affairs is right, wrong, good, or bad and individual people must make moral judgments.
Humanists mean that our social instincts lays the foundation of morality and that they are a natural part of humanity. Ideas such as freedom, justice, happiness, equality, fairness are all seen as human inventions, that we must strive to live up to. Do all people have equal value? Because the freedom of choice contribute to human happiness, humanists value individual freedom. In the same way, humanists oppose racism, sexism, torture, unfair imprisonment, persecution because of beliefs and inequalities in wealth and education or everything that stand in the way of human welfare, development and progress.
Behaviorism is a systematic approach to the understanding of human and animal behavior. The theory that the study of the human mind should be based on people 's actions and behaviour, and not on what they say that they think or feel, (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/behaviourism, 2010). There is also the issue that, with the rise of behaviorism in psychology, there came to be identified a conflict between those who hold the view that behavior controls the environment and those who believe that environment controls behavior. In fact, most introductory psychology courses not only raise the issue but also identify behaviorism with environmental control. Age changes affect the patterns of thought, attitudes, actions and values that the people live in.
They help the scientifically literate person to observe how scientific claims are supported by data and reasoning to justify the claim. Epistemic knowledge enables us to know the role of enquiry in producing knowledge, the goal of the enquiry and the methodology of the enquiry. Without a solid foundation of epistemic knowledge, the level of confidence in scientific knowledge is severely hampered by the measurements related errors. Such knowledge empowers us to use physical systems and abstract models appropriately with due emphasis on their limitations. It also encourages group efforts and critical investigation of the natural world through scientific argumentation and reasoning.
Moreover the new science built its own new independent force of power or authority and challenged the old theory and practices. Enlightenment thinkers believed in the abilities, capabilities, and the intellectual power of human beings. And they believed that human beings have the systematic knowledge of the nature. Enlightenment was the period of the advancement of science as well as the tremendous
Darwinism is a more likely explanation for species change as it is testable and has supporting evidence whereas Intelligent Design does not. Darwinism makes the claim that species change over time due to three selective pressures; natural, sexual, and artificial selection. Natural selection is when a trait that supports adaptation
Positivism and interpretivism are two perspectives of epistemology，first I want to talk about positivism. Positivism is a scientific way to find the truth，it means that people should use scientific study to know and explain the social world，such as observation，measurement and experimentation，only through these ways，that people can get knowledge about the society. There are five important principles in positivism，they are objectivism,empiricism，scientific method，value freedom and instrumental knowledge.As for interpretivism，it pays more attention to human behaviors and the meanings，some people think scientific method may not totally gain the knowledge about human itself，it can not help to understand the meaning of social facts，so they use interpretivism to understand the world（Fulcher，J.&Scott，J.2007），there are also five key points of interpretivism，they are subjectivism，meaning，interpretation，value freedom and