Adherents of social constructivism feel most meaningful learning occurs when individuals are engaged in social activities with other human beings (McMahon, 1997 as cited by O’Bien, 2007). Social constructivism is based on the premise that the social world of the learner includes the learner, the teacher, friends, other students, and other people (Lawson, 2003). Because the teacher plays such an important role in the education process, both in terms of what content is taught and what methods are used it, it seems that studying the underlying attitudes of teachers with the students in their classrooms would help teachers better understand the types of experiences that both students and social studies teachers have as well as the social interactions in the
The process involves four major steps: attention, retention, reproduction, and motivation. In a classroom setting, students with externalizing behaviour observe their peers’ habits and can model those habits to reflect theirs. They also examine the effect of Observational Learning Theory and imply that social interaction as advocated by educational philosophers Piaget and Vygotsky assist students with externalizing behaviours not only learn from their peers but also, they can learn through interaction in the learning environment. They further suggest when students with externalizing behavior are given the opportunity to teach their fellow students they may acquire a sense of belonging, responsibility, and pride. Vygosky’s Zone of Proximal Development using principles of the guided learning theory asserts that students learn
He introduced the art and science of helping adults learn to practioners. (Knowles 1973). Many foundations for learning organizations, the desirability of encouraging informal learning owe much to the Knowles theory of adult learning. The attributes that define his theory include: acknowledging that adults are self-directed learners and autonomous
The Adult Learning Theory-Andragogy provides assumptions related to how adults find meaning and value in learning. Adults want to gain knowledge in topics that will be relevant to them today and the skills they need to be successful in the moment. Adult learners must be motivated to learn and often acquire knowledge by being able to related new information to past life experiences (O’Toole & Essex, 2012). The syllabus’ focus will be on relating cultural competency to the future success of students as occupational therapists and leaders within the profession. The assignments and assessments implemented will foster learning by allowing students to use past experiences to learn and understand new material.
Both behaviorism and social learning theory agree that experience is an important ground of learning. They also include the concepts of reinforcement and punishment in their description of behavior. Furthermore, they agree that feedback is important in promoting learning. Most of the principles of the social learning theory were developed by Bandura (Papalia, Olds & Feldman, 2007). Social learning theory believes that students learn by observing or watching and imitating other people.
(Argyris & Schön, 1996) and (Senge, 1990). In contrast to individual learning, group learning at the organisational level embraces the activities of an organisation that is continually expanding its capacity to create its own future. Both individual and group learning at the workplace can be characterised as a highly social activity which: a) requires interaction and dialogue amongst the learners within the organisation; b) requires the kinds of challenges such as the direction from management and facilitation of learning to create the necessity for learning; and c) Involves reflection on past experiences of experts who has both business experiences and previous successful BCM implementation so that future learning activities can be planned. It is also observed that due to the informal nature of workplace learning, it is often hard for workers to recognise that any learning is taking place while they are working. Reflecting on action (action
According to Baierema (2014), adults learn differently from children and suggest that adults are self- directed in their learning. Adults have reached a point in their life that they see the value of an education and are ready to focus on their education. Adults are involved in the planning and evaluation of their instructions and possess experience which forms the basis of their learning activities. Furthermore, adults are most interested in learning a subject that is relevant to their job or personal life. Moreover, adult learning is problem-centered rather than content – oriented.
Conflict, differences, and disagreement are what drive the learning process. These tensions are resolved in iterations of movement back and forth between opposing modes of reflection and action and feeling and thinking (Kolb and Kolb, 2013). Forth proposition is “Learning is a holistic process of adaptation to the world”. According to Kolb and Kolb (2013), learning is not just the result of cognition but involves the integrated functioning of the total person—thinking, feeling, perceiving and behaving. It encompasses other specialized models of adaptation from the scientific method to problem solving, decision making and creativity.
Vygotsky assumes that learner will learn best when actively participating in a learning session with the teacher through doing constructed activities. Vygotsky builds a theory of Zone Proximal Development (ZPD) which is an undercover area of knowledge that a learner can build when teacher able to refine the way of learner perform. In social constructivism, the role of human linguistic abilities enable learner to outdone natural limitation. Vygotsky ZPD will enables the learner to reach a potential development by the guidance and participation or teacher as facilitator and peers. A learner capability of problem-solving and understanding situation will be upgraded above their actual development because constructivist believes the cognitive structures that still in the process of maturing will mature after compromising with the guidance or with the participation with others.
Enlisted below is the broad classification of adult learning process into various sub-concepts such as:- • Firstly, Androgogy that is the art and science of making adults learn by an educator. • Secondly, Self-directed approach that is the need of individual to manage her or his own learning • Thirdly, Transformational approach or the psycho-cultural and cognitive restructuring of an individual due to experiences • Lastly, the class, gender and ethnicity learning that accentuate the impact of societal factors on learning. Androgogy It can be defined as the approach to become self-reliant, autonomous and self-directed by the means of experiences. It is not qualified by mission and vision but academic learning including reflection, critique