As Marjorie DeVault has stressed "Nearly every writer on the topic agrees that there is no single feminist method, yet there is a substantial literature on ‘feminist methodology’, representing a diverse community of sociologists in lively and sometimes contentious dialogue” .What makes feminist research "feminist" is the method used by the researcher. There are certain research methods that are original forms of feminist research methods. Such methods include consciousness-raising, creating group diaries, drama, genealogy and network tracing, the non authoritative research voice or multiple-person stream-of-consciousness narrative, conversation, using intuition or writing associatively, identification, studying unplanned personal experiences, structured conceptualization, photography or the taking-pictures technique, and speaking freely into a tape recorder or answering long, essay-type questionnaires (Reinharz, 1992). "This suggests that what makes research 'feminist' is not the methods as such, but the framework within which they are located, and the particular ways in which they are deployed" (Maynard & Purvis, 1995).Hence feminist can use different techniques of research as a feminist researcher can use both qualitative and quantitative
He further adds that ‘it also pays much more attention to the spe-cific content of media and the portential consequences of the different kinds of media (print, audiovisual, interactive, etc. )’ . It was argued that this theory do not focus sufficiently on the general, social, cultural and economic contexts within which the media are situated. Moreover it was stated that the key aspects do not of themselves constitute a pedagogy even though they may facilitate pedagogical thinking. Nevertheless, it has been stated that this framework undertaken by the BFI is extremely valuable in developing an understanding of the media and the communication process.
Emily Poole J320 3/9/2018 Final Paper The Other Feminist Film Theory During the mid-20th century, second and third wave feminism swept the nation. The feminist movements focused on combating the roles associated with being a woman and, in turn, lead them to critique how women are represented in media. The feminist movement emerged in media as Feminist Film theory, where the leading women of the mid-20th century analyzed representations of women in film(media). Unfortunately, the leading feminist film theorists where white women and their fight against gender oppression in media left out non-white women. The early feminist film theorists categorized race and gender as separate systems of oppression, and by doing so they universalized the white woman’s experience as representing the oppression experienced by all women.
Feminist film theory Feminist scholars point out that there is misogyny in the mainstream media that treat women as inferior and objects. They expressed that there is a need to explore representations and images of women. Feminist film theory makes gender its exploratory focus and it has emerged to find a place for women in films; they were frustrated with how feminist studies ignore critiques and works of media, particularly films. Conventionally, the representations of media are counter to the ideas of feminism. The study of women’s representation in the media is not new When feminist film theory emerged in the 1970s and early 1980s and parallels with the development of film theory.
This particular study is unique in the sense that it differs sufficiently in its orientation and basic assumptions. There is a virtual famine of anthropological studies of mass media (Gans, 1974). A large portion of mass media, mass culture, mass communication and popular culture are founded on non-anthropological definition of culture that intermittently differ from the definition within this research. Our notion of visual entities as earlier said is characterized by critical assessments and evaluations of elite scholars. These studies often focus on the effects of mass media on society and adopt empirical methods.
While the uses and gratifications theory primarily represents a bottom-up approach, examining the motivations behind the interaction of people with media, institutional mediatization can be seen as a top-down approach. It argues that culture and society increasingly depend on media and that institutions within society are altered through their logic (Bolin, 2014). Moreover, "media have become integrated into the operations of other social institutions, while they also have acquired the status of social institutions in their own right" (Bolin, 2014, p. 177). It shows that media influence social spheres at the same time from the inside and outside, but are never truly separated as they are developed in a preexisting cultural framework. The case
In The views of The Birmingham School, media culture induces individuals to conform to the established organization of society but it also lends resources that can empower individual against that society. (Kellner, D (1995)) In conclusion, calling attention to mass media, cultural studies relates to how the audience can decode the messages put forward by the media. More specifically in relation to their individual socio and economic background. This in turn can lead to the rejection of the dominant ideology. Whilst the Birmingham school, in particular Stuart hall would be in favour of the audience’s capability to decode the messages of the media The Frankfurt School has less belief that the audience form their own understanding but rather base their opinions solely on what the media encodes.
It is also a prerequisite for developing effective strategies to liberate women and identifies the underlying causes of women’s subordination. Dr. Rosemarie Tong a distinguished Professor of Health Care Ethics in the Department of Philosophy, suggests that feminist theory attempts to describe women’s oppression, to explain its causes and consequences, and to prescribe strategies for women’s liberation. In “Women Do Theory,” Jane Flax, a professor in the department of political science, suggests that theory is a systematic, analytic approach to everyday experience. Flax argues that everybody does this unconsciously and that to theorize is to bring this unconscious process to a conscious level so that it can be developed and refined. According to Flax, feminist theory seeks to understand the power differential between men and women, seeks to understand women’s oppression—how it evolved, how it changes over time, how it is related to other forms of oppression and how to overcome these oppressions.
Feminist methodology includes wide range of methods, approaches and research strategies. Feminist work was generally qualitative methodologies. Gelsthorpe (1990) identified 4 major themes in a debate around the nature of feminist methodology as following; Choice of topic; Gelsthorpe suggests that generally meant selecting objects of study that are linked to women’s oppression and seek to identify topics of political and practical importance that have a potential to contribute to that ending oppression. Process; the strengths and weaknesses of quantitative and qualitative approaches to research has been debated. As said above there has been a consistent view put forward that qualitative methods are in the bigger favour best suited to feminist research