People can learn new information and behaviours by watching other people behaviour and action. This is known as observational learning or modelling. Bandura’s famous Bobo doll experiment shown that people can learn through observation. He demonstrated that children learn and imitate behaviours they have observed in other people on the Bobo doll. The experiment was conducted whereby firstly, the children in Bandura’s studies observed an adult acting violently toward a Bobo doll.
Separately, by observing the behaviors of others, people develop similar behaviors (Smith & Berge, 2009). It considers that people learn from one another through observational learning and imitation. He believes that people obtain their behaviors by observing to others, then imitate what they have observed. In year 1961, Albert Bandura and his researchers carried out an experiment named as Bobo Doll experiment in order to study how aggressive behavior develops in children. He believes that children are passive witnesses to an aggressive display by an adult.
For example as illustrated in the now famous “Bobo Doll Experiment” by Bandura, Ross, and Ross(1961), found that children who observed a model displaying aggressive behaviour towards the Bobo doll imitated that behaviour. In the experiment, he split the children up into two conditions whereby the children will observe either a aggressive or non-aggressive model. The children were then further categorized into male and female and made to observe same sex models. In the aggressive condition the
Introduction of the Theory (History) Social Learning Theory was introduced by Albert Bandura in year 1977 ( McLeod, 2011). Social Learning Theory was mainly talking about how environmental factor influence the social behavior of an individual. An individual will simply observe and imitate the behaviors or actions of nearby people. In the early stages of Albert Bandura’s research for social learning theory, he analyzed the basics of learning process of human and also the willingness of children and adults to imitate behaviors observed in others. Models are an important source for an individual to learn new things and behaviors.
The children who viewed the male or female adult behaving aggressively to a Bobo Doll were then left alone with the doll and observed to see what type of behaviour they would display and what was shown was that the children that had witnessed the aggression to the Bobo Doll imitated the adult’s aggression. Bandura concluded that learning can take place through observation called vicarious learning however he believed that observational learning cannot be the whole answer as people also have individual differences for example personality and genes. Overall, the study is plausible as it is a well-supported account of development and it can be applied to a wide range of behaviours as children observe every type of behaviour but they only imitate the behaviours that they think that they will benefit from. The Bobo Doll study takes into account cognition as
Social Constructivism in the Classroom : One version of constructivist learning theory, namely, social constructivism, emphasises the ways a culture influences its people’s mental constructs. A key assumption about social constructivism is that “learning is collaborative with meaning negotiated from multiple perspectives (Smith & Ragan, 1999 : 15). The main theory underlying co-operative learning is social constructivism proposed by Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky (1896-1934). He considered that the roles of culture and society as well as language and interaction are important in understanding how humans learn. Vygotsky (1962) assumed that knowledge is cultural; he took a socio-cultural approach in his study with children.
The Socio-behaviorist theory (behaviorism) Socio-behaviorists often study how children 's experiences model their behaviors (Nolan & Raban, 2015). Behaviorism believes that what matters is not the development itself, but the external factors that shape children 's behaviors (Nolan & Raban, 2015). This theory demonstrates that teachers and mentors dominate and instruct child-related activities, and they decide what children should learn and how to learn (Nolan & Raban, 2015). Reinforcement, which is an essential factor that helps children to learn particular behaviors, generally refers to rewards and punishments (Nolan & Raban, 2015). Children are more likely to repeat actions that result in receiving praise; in contrast, they may ignore or abandon behaviors that make them get punishment.
This story gives truth to the famous saying “children live what they learn” this is so according to the theory Social Learning fathered by the Canadian – American Psychologist Albert Bandura. Unlike other theories that support the belief that behaviours are inherited, Social learning theory believes that individuals learn from their environment and from each other through imitation, observation and modeling. In a quest to prove this Bandura conducted an experiment in1961 known as the Bobo doll experiment. He had four hypotheses 1.Children witnessing an adult role model behaving in an overly aggressive manner would be likely to replicate similar behavior themselves, even if the adult was not present. 2.
Sociocultural theory focuses not only how adults and peers influence individual learning, but also, on how cultural beliefs and attitudes influences how instruction and learning take place. Vygotsky theory is children are born with basic biological constraints on their minds. Each culture provides what he referred to as ‘tools of intellectual adaptation.’ These tools allow students to use their basic mental abilities in a way that is adaptive to the culture in they which they live. For example, while one culture might emphasize memory strategies such as note-taking, other cultures might use tools like reminders or rote memorization. Vygotsky placed a greater emphasis on how social factors influence development, he stressed the essential role that social interactions play in cognitive
Observational learning occurs when we observe the actions of another and note the consequences of that person’s actions, then decide whether to imitate them or not. In other words, modelling is any process in which information is imparted by example, before direct practice is allowed (rosenthal & Steffek, 1991). It has been found that children as young as 21 days old have been shown to imitate facial expressions and mouth movements. For observational learning to occur, several factors must be involved. Attention; The extent to which we are exposed/notice the behaviour.