CHAPTER 3 CLASS STRUGGLE Generally class struggle means conflict between the upper class and lower class the idea of Class struggle is long-used mostly by socialists and communists, who define a class by its relationship to the means of production such as factories, land, and machinery. From this point of view, the social control of production and labour is a fight between classes, and the division of these resources basically involves conflict and causes damage. Societies are socially divided based on status, wealth, or control of social production and distribution, and in this division of class conflict arises. It is important to know Karl Marx theory on class struggle; he viewed the structure of society in relation to
The most significant impact that Marx theory of Marxism is his emphasis on class struggle a division between classes who clash in the pursuit of class interests. The first class, The Bourgeoisie or the materialist class owns and controls the means of production in society. The bourgeoisie developed hegemonic rule by using their economic power to centralise political power and to control all aspects of production including ideology, culture, state apparatuses. The state thus emerged as a repressive instrument, controlled by capitalist interests, to foster the reproduction of a society with a strict social hierarchy and hegemony one that fosters the maintenance of the bipolar class structure. The bourgeoisie has control of industry, or the economic engine of society, but also because those within this class seized state power by creating and controlling the post-feudal political system.
When Auguste Comte coined the term ‘sociology' to refer to a positivistic or scientifically proven approach to study human society and social life, he gave rise to the central idea of the structural functionalist perspective on deviance and conformity (Thompson & Gibbs, 2017). This sociological perspective provides a macro-level analysis that focuses on the structure of society and the roles of social institutions such as government and family, to provide its members with stable patterns of social structures (Goode, 2008). Many people tend to associate negative implications when they come across deviant actions —any behavior such as crime that breaks from commonly accepted norms or expectations— and assume that society would be better off without
For example, as Karl Marx and Max Weber believed that social conflict was intrinsic to the organization of capitalistic societies, Émile Durkheim found it to be abnormal and damaging to industrial production. As well, just as Weber was cautious in terms of a revolution, Marx embraced the fast-paced movements such as collective protest as it unified the working class and defined their struggles. In conclusion, the sociologists helped reflect a concern for the consequences of modern life through their influential philosophies of the working class during industrialism, and their ideologies on the social constraints of
As indicated by Marx, business people misuse specialists for their work and don 't share the products of these works similarly. This abuse is the thing that permits the owning classes to command politically and to force their philosophy on the laborers of the world. Max Weber refined Marx 's conflict theory (Fish, 2005). Weber expressed that more than one conflict over property existed at any given minute in any given society, which is more nuanced than Marx 's theory that the main battle of significance was that amongst proprietors and laborers. Weber incorporated an enthusiastic part of conflict too: Feminist theory is one of the real contemporary sociological theories, which examines the status of women and men in society with the motivation behind utilizing that information to better women 's lives.
This power in the Marxist paradigm held by the bourgeoisie and aristocracy results from their possession of the means of production, which in turn assures the unconstrained access to the superstructural goods, e.g. education and politics, that is cultural goods not related directly to the process of production. The access to those can perpetuate dependency between the oppressed and the oppressors as it maintains or regulates the social divisions. The feminist perspective, on the other hand, assumes men as the enemy with their patriarchal construct of womanhood imposed upon women along with
In the source, the man contains collectivist ideals, explaining that a laissez-faire economy causes problems within the working class. The profit that comes from the labour of the workers goes towards the capitalist and leaves the workers with little money and bad working conditions. This significant inequality will invoke all of the working members to gather together and cause a revolution. The restructuring will create a government with a socialist ideal, meaning that everyone is set out to do jobs according to their ability and they will be provided for according to their needs. These beliefs align with the philosopher Karl Marx, known as the father of communism who promoted an egalitarianism way of thinking.
Ruling elites might use political ideas to contain opposition and restrict debate through the process of ideological manipulation. It was obvious in regimes that possessed official ideologies such as Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. In both cases, official or political reliable beliefs dominated political life and all other social institutions in such a way that opposing views were strictly censored or suppressed. However, some argue that a more subtle form of ideological manipulation occurs in all societies. This can be seen in the Marxist belief that the culture of capitalist societies is prevailed by ideas with the interests of the economically dominant class (Heywood 2003, 5).
The conflict theory is most recognised in a capitalist society where the elite control the working and lower classes through the means of production. Karl Marx, the founder of Marxism, wishes for a communist revolution (Coakley, 2001), Emile Durkheim (Functionalism) Society is organised through a system of interrelated parts. Functionalists believes society is based upon shared norms and values which is socialised into young children through social institutions. A primary Socialiser is the family (Beedie & Craig, 2010) and Max Webber (Critical theory) The critical theory focuses on a cultural change in society. As power relations and narratives change, society adjusts itself as it follows suit.
Unlike the symbolic interaction perspective, which views society as a product of daily social interactions of individuals, conflict theory analyzes society as a struggle for power that states that tensions and conflicts arise when resources, status, and power are unevenly between groups in society (Crossman, 2017). Conflict theory originated from sociologist, Karl Marx. Theorists that support conflict theory believe that the general population was divided into two groups. These two populations were separated by the wealthy, who control the means of production and the proletariat, who were the workers who depended on the wealthy for employment and survival (Crowell, n.d). The conflict theory's perspective on deviance suggests that the individual is deviant based on who has the most power.