Researchers have invested decades worth of time and data, attempting to answer the question of what causes crime. The study of criminological theory contains a great number of explanations, focused on discovering why exactly, crime occurs. Whether causations are biological, psychological, or sociological in nature, theory has lead us closer to answering the question of why crime happens. Perhaps causations are best explained using hybrid explanations that include a little bit of everything. A significant part of theory focuses on delinquency and the domino like effect of deviant behavior that results for children into adulthood. According to the United States government, 25-33% percent of school aged children are subject to the victimization
Theories help answer two very important questions; how and why. The purpose of a theory is to explain how and why certain things and/or events are connected to other things and/or events. Everything done in the criminal justice field is based on theory. In criminology, theories answer questions about criminal behavior that would have otherwise not been answered. Theories give clues to how and why people commit criminal acts. By providing the motives behind criminal activity, theories give criminologists a better understanding of crime (Bohm & Vogel, 2015). Theories of criminal behavior can relate to human nature, biological issues, psychological issues, sociological issues, economic issues, or a collaboration of two or more of these factors.
A theory is a set of statements or principles developed to explain a group of facts or phenomena. It has been repeatedly tested and used to make predictions. Theories in this category attempt to explain why an individual commits a crime or delinquent behaviors. The primary goal of criminological theory is to help one gain an understating of why and how certain things are related to criminal behavior (Bohm and Vogel, 2011). Theories dissect the making and the breaking of the law, criminal different behavior, as well as patterns of criminal activity. Theories can be used to guide policy making and can be weighed on a number of criteria including biological things, psychological things, sociological things, economic things or a combination of
Most was derived from the assumption that behaviors such as; criminal and otherwise, are inherited. Which means that criminals are biologically different than non-criminals. One of the earliest explanations was known as Phrenology which was in the mid-1700’s to mid-1800’s, which viewed the shape and size of the brain and skull as determinants of criminal tendencies. The next early positivist explanation for deviance was in 1876, Cesare Lombroso’s theory of “Atavism” and “The Born Criminal” This was the 1st Major Application of this new science to the study of criminals and deviance.
One of the first criminal justice courses, and the significantly influential one, that I took part in was during my freshman year and was the Sociology of Crime. This course examined the various theories behind why crime is committed and our professor pushed us to critically analyze each one. The information I learned in this course has continued to guide and shape the research that I conducted during my undergraduate career. There were two theories that I took and eventually based my first research project upon. The first was the Broken Windows Theory, which posits that if a neighborhood appears to be run down and appears to be generally uncared for by the residents, criminals reach the reasonable assumption that it will not be noticed if they commit a crime since the neighborhood is already in disarray.
Why do people commit crimes? What goes through their minds before they actually commit a crime? These are questions asked from society to criminologist every time one decides they want to commit a crime. Criminologists has given us different crime causations, theories, to explain the answer to these questions. A theory is a speculation about how phenomena, behavior, or process are caused and what takes place after the cause is determined (Anderson, 2015).
Both, classical and positivist theory exam and interpret the basic motion of human behaviour in collaboration to criminality. In the past, classical theory framed their research on how crime rates are influence by the alternative outcome outside of the criminal justice system, such as biological, psychological, and social factors, which at a similar point positivism assumed the close evidence but differentiation in punishment certainty and severity of criminal behaviour could not deter the variables of the positivist theory. (Rose
The objective of criminological theories is to help one gain an understating of crime and criminal justice. Speculations cover the making and the infringing upon of the law, criminal and degenerate conduct, and additionally examples of criminal movement All of the listed theories play an important role regarding the reason why Aaron Hernandez committed the
The classical criminological theory was born during the Enlightenment Age. It highlights individuals having free will and choosing to make rational choices regarding criminal behavior. The theory assumes that individuals commit crimes based on possible benefits outweighing risks from their behavior (Tibbetts, pg. 5). 1600s English Philosopher, Thomas Hobbs, made the following assumptions about human nature. He said humans tend to act in logical way, but have a fundamental nature of self-interest.
My paper aims to discuss the three different factors of criminal behaviour, what causes it and why. My essay will examine and focus mainly on the genetic makeup of a person, the environment in which they are raised in and gender differences.
Social process theory has several subdivisions including: social control theory, social learning theory and social reaction (labeling) theory (will only focus on social control theory). Social control theory insinuates every person has the possibility of becoming a criminal, but most people are influenced by their bonds to society. It contends that individuals obey the law and are less likely to commit crime if they have: learned self-control, attachment (to family, friends, peers, education, etc.), commitment (to school, learning, etc.), involvement (in leisure activities, sports, etc.), and belief (those that are positive). According to social control theory, an individual is more likely to be criminal/deviant if they are detached and alienated
This theory clearly rules out the effect of inherited or innate factors, and the last is the cognitive theory, which is based on how the perception of an individual is manifested into affecting his or her potential and capability to commit a crime. (Psychological theories of crime) Relating these theories to the case under study, it’s clear that the behaviour can be traced most times to faulty relationships in the family during the first years of
There are many different phenomenons that could be explained by sociological theories. Sociology studies these occurrences to explain why people do the things they do. Crimes rates can be defined by symbolic interactionism, functionalist theory and conflict theory. People are born into the wrong neighborhood and grow up stealing.
There is no tell-tale sign of who becomes a criminal and who doesn 't. Many things factor into the development of a criminal. The debate between nature vs. nurture in this aspect cannot be blamed on a single element, instead both environment and genetics play a role in criminality of an idividual. The population of American jails has a high rate of individuals with mental disorders. Although, not everyone who has a mental disorder ends up in jail the vast majority of Americans who are incarcerated are likely to have inherited a mental disorder at some point in their life. At some point in American history, genes were said to be the sole reason a person became criminal however, this is not the case today.
Social process theory depends on the interaction between individuals and society as an explanation and is also known as interactionist perspective. This theory assumes that everyone has the potential to violate the law and that criminality is not an innate human characteristic but is instead a belief that criminal behavior is learned by interaction with others (Schmalleger, 2012). Social process feels the socialization process that occurs because of group membership is the main way through which learning occurs (Schmalleger, 2012). Social process theory views criminality as people’s interactions with various organizations, institutions, and processes in society (Siegel, 2000). This theory feels that people from all areas have the potential