Comparing and contrasting the contribution of Jean Piaget and Erik Erikson to the field of developmental psychology, with particular focus on childhood development. Introduction Research into lifespan developmental psychology has, for many years now, questioned the principal that our lives are predictable and ordered. (Sugarman, 2011) The aim of this essay is to address this subject with specific focus on the contribution and thoughts of both Jean Piaget and Erik Erikson and what they described as the sequence or stages of development an individual must experience in order to reach their potential. (Sugarman, 2011) This essay will outline the findings of both Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory and Erikson’s Psychosocial Development Theory with specific reference to the emphasis they both placed on the importance of childhood development. Also the similarities and differences between each theorist will be acknowledged in order to draw on the overall impact and relevance both theorists had in the field of developmental psychology.
Through factors such as cognitive development of the infant, attentive care and intimate interactions with a primary caregiver, the attachment relationship is created – shaping the infants- caregiver bond. By examining the interactions between an infant and their primary caregiver, we can identify secure, insecure and disorganized attachment (Ainsworth, 1978; Cassidy 1994); which can reveal a great deal about the relationship between the infant and attachment figure. Overall, the quality of attachment bonds formed in the early years can have long lasting effects on an infant’s emotional security and social competence; not only shaping their ability to form relationships, but laying the foundations for the social, emotional and mental development of the
Also, the psychodynamic theories develop during childhood experience and shape personality. According to Freud, human’s behaviors are the results of an interaction among the components of the mind: id, ego, and superego. Freud also talks about the conscious mind and explained the thought and beliefs of which humans are aware of. In his theory Freud explained what goes on in the unconscious mind: when people go
Resilience is very imperative for children to possess or adopt. It strengthens their spirit to conquer the difficult situations in life where most of them fail. Children should be helped in overcoming the difficulties not only in their academics and their relationship with their peers but in relationships with themselves as well. The normal psychological functioning of children who are not guided to cope with stress may be adversely affected. Developing resilience is necessary that parents, care givers and other adults need to fulfill it as part of their role in the lives of
The attachment theory is most commonly observed in the parent- child scenario, as it is in Bowlby’s study which regarded the existence of the attachment as a child needing some sort of person to give them a security and assurance. It is explained that with lack thereof, the individual would find it difficult to explore horizons because there is that part of their development, needed to be fulfilled with such assurance, that wasn’t met during childhood, thus such insecurities may surface. Further, it is pointed out that the relationship established between the parent and the child has an impact in the child’s behavioral and emotional self-regulation. It relies heavily on the level in which the parents are able to meet the child’s needs for someone to stand as a stronghold of confidence and to provide them the feeling of safety. Attachment theory also explains levels in a child’s ability to place recall or differentiate
Overview of Attachment Theory Attachment theory tries to describe the evolution of personality and behaviour in relationships and it gives a reason for the difference in a person’s emotional and relationship attitudes. In the beginning, it looked at the mechanics of relationships between children and their parents but it has since been expanded to cover the entire life of the human being (Howe, 2000). Attachment theory includes insights learned from evolutionary theory, ethology, systems theory and developmental psychology (Howe, 2001). Attachment theory is often described as a psychosocial theory as it explores the human experience which is formed by the interaction between the psychology of the individual and the social environment (Howe,
Several theories exist to explain the process of human development. The following will discuss five individual, influential theories of development and how they relate to age-related milestones throughout the lifespan. Biology and Evolutionary Theories emphasize that the factors that motivate human behaviour are both genetic and biological process, and that they have gradually changed over time through a process of genetic mutation, natural selection, and evolution (Bee, Boyd, & Johnson, 2018). Associated with these theories are the study of genes, patterns of inheritance, behaviour genetics, ethology, evolutionary psychology, as well as the work of influential evolutionist Charles Darwin, who believed that the development of the human species could understood by studying child development (Bee, Boyd, & Johnson, 2018). Psychoanalytic Theories suggest that adult behaviour and emotions stem from childhood experiences (Bee, Boyd, & Johnson, 2018).
Resilience Development program is a group of activities organized together to help students cope with their daily troubles in life like stress relating to their environment, other people and within themselves. It has its objectives for each activity together with the persons involved and the time frame. Interpersonal skills are the opposite of intrapersonal skills which pertain to the recognition or acknowledgement of the child of the support and assistance which he or she can possibly obtain from others. These outside support can be the child’s significant others such as parents, teachers, role models, older siblings, or other adults in the family or on the neighborhood, parents of a friend, or simply those who can be the child’s peers or friends. Intrapersonal skills refer to the personal strengths that involve thoughts, feelings, and beliefs which reside within the child.
It directly affects his/her temperament. • The child’s temperament can affect how they view themselves and their ability to successfully complete tasks (Angela Oswalt, 2008). Emotional relationships with others during this stage are exhibited through the development of empathy and social competence. It is a very crucial development and it depends on the child’s relationship with his/her parents, siblings, peers, and caregivers. Social development in early childhood The term social development is inter-related with emotional development in the early childhood stage.
This type of nurturing produces the intrapersonal development problem to children. As Baumrind and Black (1967) claims, the ways of authoritarian parents are attaching importance to submission and approving penalty to children for rectifying their manner