Apartheid was an ideology for the segregation of distinctive racial groups that was introduced in South Africa in 1948. At first, its aim was to have an “equal development and freedom of cultural expression,” (South African History Online, 2017). However, the Apartheid established a social system that forced people of different colors to live and develop separately instead. It undoubtedly impaired the blacks, which took up most of the population, only because they didn’t have the same skin color as their rulers. The Apartheid was developed for several reasons, the major influence was the ideology of racial dominance and fear.
ii) Apartheid Racism * Apartheid racism is one of the most serious racism throughout the world’s history. The deputy chair recommends all of the delegates to devise effective measures to actively eradicate the remaining social atmosphere of apartheid in South Africa. 1) Introduction to Apartheid Racism Apartheid racism was a system of racial segregation in South Africa enforced through legislation by the National Party, the governing party from 1948 to 1994. Under apartheid, the rights, associations, and movements of the majority black inhabitants and other ethnic groups were curtailed, and white minority rule was maintained. Apartheid was developed after World War II by the Afrikaner-dominated National Party and Broderbund organizations.
By granting this voice to a native character, the Nigerian narrator is also given an authority equal to the “white” narrator along with its commentary on humanity’s similarity: exposing universal human conditions, whether as “civilized” white men or as African natives. The author first exposes colonial rule and the negative elements (corruption, oppression, etc. ), through the narrative point-of-view of a native. It debunks the myth of the superior moral and cultural ground of the white people. Colonization used to be described as attempts to benefit the colonized country, but in Purple Hibiscus, it seems to bring about more harm than good.
The main and central objective of this dissertation is an effort to evaluate the post colonial thematic preoccupations in the African society and literature. It is an analysis of post colonial thematic preoccupations in the literary work ‘Arrow of God’ by Chinua Achebe and ‘Cry – The Beloved Country’ by Alan Paton. Both novelists have tried to depict the realistic condition of native African colonized people. Imperialism is a kind of aspect in which one country is trying to seek in expanding its power and authority by conquering other countries or by setting up economic and political dominance on the countries. Imperialism starts when one country or nation takes over smaller countries for their land and natural resources.
For example, it is crucial to establish race as a political category because it is essential to fighting racism (5). Racism is connected to colonialism and slavery by the creation of racial hierarchies. Whites, from Europe felt threatened by blacks, and therefore they created a racial ranking which allowed them to be superior which led to the construction of slavery during the colonial period. The ideology that whites were superior became a reason to why racism was explicitly introduced during the colonial period in which slavery took
Apartheid in South Africa Name of Student Institution affiliation Apartheid in South Africa Apartheid in South Africa was a system of discrimination based on one’s race. The two main groups involved in the enforcement of apartheid was the British Cape Colony and the Dutch. Apartheid was a racially discriminative practice which favored the white over the blacks in South Africa. So severe was apartheid that people resorted to oppose the rule in different ways. Some took peaceful demonstrations, others violent protests, boycotts and eventually political involvement.
Fanon explored in his book about the nature of colonialism and racism, and the psychological damage they caused in colonial peoples and in the colonizer. Fanon begins Black skin, White Masks with the basic factor in language for black people is that speaking is absolute to exist for other. The language of colonizer is superior that the language of the colonized people. Their language was as inferior. Colonizers language was recognized as an intelligent language, language of power.
Because of pressures brought on by the international community, Pieter Botha, the Prime Minister of South Africa, sought out to change some of the reforms set up against Black South Africans, and this included the rules on education. Botha realized that the segregation laws put on Black South Africans were only increasing opposition and resistance, which meant that the Uprising was acting as a trigger event for other protests to take place. This was effecting ‘white businesses’ to a large extent and the demands for reform were constantly increasing. By 1989 F.W. de Klerk was appointed as the new Prime Minister and he installed a new constitution which liberated black people as well as other racial groups.
The financial oligarchies organized production to satisfy their needs for profit and capital accumulation as well as to remedy the deficiencies in their production processes at home. Apart from the use of military conquest, African resistance to this material reorganization and political domination of their societies was attacked from two angles: one was material and the other, ideological (Nnoli, 1978:1). The colonial government changed the material circumstances of the Africans by compelling them to participate in colonial economic activities dominated by the profit motive, through forced labor, taxation, the introduction of new currencies, and the creation of artificial scarcity (via the accumulation of huge surpluses even during times of severe economic depression), low wages, low prices for cash crops, and costly social services. At the ideological
Indeed, some reformers, like Captain Richard Henry Pratt, an army officer who had fought against the very tribes he tried later to reform towards Anglo-Saxon customs, compared the struggle of the natives towards accepting American ideals of life to the one the African-Americans had to go through. He argues that African-Americans in the United States were converted from their savage state of life in Africa, devoid of Christianity, freedoms and democratic duties, to “an element of industrial value with which we could not well dispense”. He wanted the very same cultural evolution that happened to them happen to the natives as well. While he uses terms such as whites being “the higher race” and that other “inferior” races should take the whites’ culture as the example to follow, it is not in his own self-interest, but as a desire to see all Americans, no matter the colour of their skins, follow the American principles of Christian faith and duty towards the country, which is rewarded by rights and freedoms guaranteed by the State. He pushes the assertion further by claiming that since the African-Americans and the hundreds of thousands of immigrants that came to America to better their own lives were assimilated into American culture, the same could be done for the natives.