In other words empowerment is a process through which the marginalized individuals, groups and communities are enabled to access power to resources and to have overall control on their lives (Adams 2008). He further postulated that tower in this respective context has to do with the ability to access and control resources and people. The overall objective is of the empowerment theory is for the marginalized individuals, groups and communities to gain economic and sociopolitical liberation. From the understanding of the empowerment theory, one can see its positive relevance to South Africa’s decolonization and Africanization process. This can be so in that, a critical analysis on pre 1994 South Africa shows that the Republic was under white colonial rule of the National Party which sort to increase patterns of colonial discrimination of the Black South Africans through the devolution of political structures and the promotion of a putative independence in the African reserves
Although there was a period following the Reconstruction Acts of 1867 and 1868 in which former slaves were granted citizenship, their involvement in politics became rendered by the lack of education previously provided to slaves and inability of “withstanding the economic, political, and paramilitary opposition of the white majority” (Frederickson 382). Frederickson argues African Americans simply did not have the time or preparation to oppose racist forces. Using paramilitary forces, southern redeemers easily made threats to reconstruction forces as seen through the emergence of the violent Ku Klux Klan during the election of 1866. The opportunity for African Americans to gain a stance in society was short lived by the racist efforts of democrats in the south and impartial ideals from
The political awareness among African Americans was increasing significantly, it was realized that it was necessary to become active in society in order to achieve racial equality. “The emergence of the New Negro symbolized black liberation and the final shaking off of the residuals of slavery in mind, spirit and
Summary: Race has often played a large role in globalization. The globalization process is highly screens the economies, social, and political potential of betterment. The author wants to tackle some of the new strategies of governments with newly innovated social aspects. We see how race is a major factor of world modernity, especially in the Americas, which is tied back in with anthropological analysis of globalization. First we discuss how globalization operates to diminish
countries in Africa and forcing them to give their goods through various forms such as labor and slavery. In the peer-reviewed article, “The Impact of Colonialism on African Economic Development”, authors Settles & McGaskey (1997) disclose that “The economic goals of colonialism were simple: to provide maximum economic benefit to the colonizing power at the lowest possible price” (para 3). Before colonization, countries had their own economy where they had trade market of gold and would trade resources with other countries. Similarly, communism had an impact on colonization as the economy of those impoverished countries did not improve, but only became worse. Daron Acemoğlu and James Robinson
Decolonization a process of undoing the benefits of colonialism leads to Africanization a process through which the liberalized Africans becomes conscious to what it means to be a Black person. In South African context, these two process results in the South African society being interpreted through the lens of Marxist political economy, that is mostly concerned with the analysis of the class dynamics of homeland independence and the opportunities that this process fostered for political control and capital accumulation by new and existing elites (Letsekha,2013). The process of decolonization and Africanization also helps in the development of such theories as empowerment theory, class conflict theory and black consciousness in that these theories speaks to a common theme of the complete freedom of black people from white oppression. The different ways through which these theories contribute to decolonization and Africanization are to be further explored in detail in the essay that
In conjunction with these factors the emergent democracy in South Africa has rendered these concepts both fixed and changeable (Unterhalter, Epstein, Morrell & Moletsane, 2004). With the emergence of democracy in South Africa complex politics have developed around redistribution, transformation of relations of production and the affirmation of subordinated identities. There is a movement towards an enhanced understanding of the complex processes by which identities are constituted and the ability of individuals to occupy multiple subject positions. This understanding has shed light on the fact that simple formulations based on causal connections between race, class and gender inequalities are severely limited (Unterhalter et al., 2004). In the South African context a culture of patriarchy has tended to dominate across lines of race and class and it is only since liberation in 1994 that the fight against gender inequality has been recognised and legitimised.
Economic domination which started with the slave labor of people of color has continued to benefit Whites through job discrimination, job segregation and labor exploitation. A recent (2017) meta-analysis of field experiments over the course of 25 years analyzed callbacks for Black job applicants relative to white applicants. Researchers found that even when controlling for education, gender, occupation and study method, that hiring discrimination against Blacks has not declined since 1990 (Quillian et. al. 2017).
The theories of Idealism and Realism have been chosen for this particular set of events due to Nelson Mandela’s idealistic set of beliefs and aspirations of social perfection and equality for his country, contradicting the realistic nature of South African politics at the time, with power and self-preservation being the main objective. The start of the South African fight with colonization and apartheid was started by the Dutch who were led by Jan Van Riebeeck, setting up a refreshment post for their journey to the East Indies. This was initially a peaceful act, agreed on by the nation, yet turned into one of the longest and most intense periods of apartheid in the world- over the course of 300 years. Especially with the arrival of the British, the Dutch moved more inland and colonization operations accelerated. With this came the foundation of a European colony within