Theories Of Environmental Psychology

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LITERATURE REVIEW The study aim at approaching the focal points based on the theories of environmental psychology and the factor affecting the human behaviour elaborated below. THEORIES OF ENVIRONMENT PSYCHOLOGY A review of the literature suggests that these can be summarised as five main theoretical perspectives. These are as follows: 1. Arousal theory, 2. Stimulus load theory, 3. Behaviour constraint theory, 4. Adaptation level theory, 5. Environment stress theory, and 6. Perception or cognition theory Arousal theory Arousal theory relates how people are positively affected or aroused psychologically from the environment. Spaces have impact on physical conditions of humans, like heart rate, respiration rate, blood pressure and adrenaline…show more content…
The behaviour constraint theory The environment is capable of preventing, interfering with, or limiting the behaviours of individuals (Speller 2006; Veitch and Arkkelin 1995)1 . The streets that humans perceive as deserted, dark, unused and restricted are easily avoided as they invoke fear and danger. The places that look active are always more sought after and attractive than dull lifeless streets. A person who is in a hurry takes the shortest possible distance though the treets are less active or even deserted during day time. On the contrary, at night, the same person (especially women, children and the elderly) avoids such streets and uses the active streets even if it is busy. 5 Buy streets of the places like Historic buildings, tourist locations, public parks, Religious Institutions and commercial hubs are filled with strangers more than acquaintances. A successful street surrounding such focal points or people centric places are a result of the feeling of security. The person must feel safe amongst strangers in such streets. This will encourage…show more content…
Being amongst strangers create a sense of consciousness in humans and make them “behave” accordingly. The adaptation level theory Adaptation level theorists assert that the relationship between people and their behavioural response to the environment is comprised of two processes – adaptation and adjustment (Veitch and Arkkelin 1995). People either adapt by changing their responses to the environment, or adjust by changing the environment where they are (Veitch and Arkkelin 1995). A person who travels the same route everyday adapts to any changes in the elements, scale or patterns of the street, with time. The necessity of such routes to reach their destination enables them to adjust to the changes. The environment Stress Theory Environmental Stress theorists believe that once environmental features are recognised as threatening, part of the behavioural response is automatic and begins with an alarm reaction. This reaction causes the affected person to experience alterations to their various physiological and psychological processes (Gifford 2002; Veitch and Arkkelin 1995). The term ‘cognitive appraisal’ refers to how a person assesses the seriousness of the situation. The perception or Congition

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