So, to raising back self esteem level, we need to lower the expectations and by doing so, our self esteem can soar. By understanding the concept of perfectionism and self esteem we can be more understand about others problem. This is because, some problems are comes from perfectionist behavior and level of self esteem. Example, if we have very high level of perfectionism, we may become a procrastinator (Fursland et. al.).
Jermier (2002) states “path-goal theory stated that leadership was, in essence, a dyadic more than a group phenomenon. Leaders were theorized to impact differentially the motivations of individuals by affecting valences and expectations” (p. 313). This claim supports the idea that I can use the ideas proposed by the path-goal theory in order to differentially motivate myself and others by effecting my expectations on my grade point average, my future aspirations for graduate studies, and goals to gain employment upon
The theory of brand involvement determines the relevance of the brand to consumer individual needs, values and interests. Later Zaichkowsky & Sood, 1989, stated that brand involvement refers to the customer’s personal degree of psychological affective and emotional ties on brand category or specific brand. The power of these ties or the level of involvement also determines the depth, complexity and extensiveness of cognitive and behavioral processes during the consumer decision making to the brand (Laurent & Kapferer, 1985). The organization has to placed brand involvement in their strategic effort, because it’s abstract and difficulties to understand brand consumer decision-making process in their mind, brand advertising, brand commitment, and path of brand consumption on daily basis ( Park & Young,
Congruence theory proposes that the capacity in memory and recovery of data are affected by earlier desires. One of the main background behind congruence theory focuses on the individuals recollect information that is compatible with the demands and needs of the consumer, while the contending hypothesis is that incongruent data requires more expand handling and collect the opinion of consumer of the organisation’s potential clients. In implementing the ideas to sponsorship, future examination could look at whether sponsorships reliable with member and viewer assumptions about the products are reviewed superior to those absolutely random to buyer experience (Meenaghan & O 'Sullivan, 2013). In applying compatibility theory to the effects of sponsorship,
On the other hands, intention acts as motivational factors that affect the behavior. Ajzen (1991) mentioned that the stronger intention to perform the behavior, the more likely behavior should be perform. However, non-motivational factors such as opportunity and resources like money and time also affects the behavior to be performed. Meanwhile, if an individual has sufficient resource and availability of opportunities together with the intention to perform such behavior, he or she must succeed to perform such
The exogenous variable in this context is the continuous process of adjustment of producers’ decision which, conditioned by consumers reaction, would in the long run lead to a situation that may ex post be said the best for them or accepted by them just since they would have accepted it. This is what one can do, not the one's dreams situation; it is always possible that a more creative businessman or consumer find still better
Introduction According to Robbins (1998)”Job Satisfaction is a general attitude towards one’s job, usually explained by the difference between the amount of reward workers receive and the amount they believe they should receive” Job satisfaction is the collection of feelings and beliefs people have about their jobs. There are numerous theories of Job Satisfaction.1) Content theories-Abraham Maslow hierarchy needs and Herzberg’s two factor theory. Content theory suggests that Job Satisfaction occurs when one’s needs for growth and self actualization are met by the individual job.2) Process theories-Adams(1963 )and Vroom’s Equity theory,1982) these theories attempt to explain Job satisfaction by looking at expectancies and values. 3) Situation theories the situational theories suggest that Job satisfaction is an attitude rather than a behavior The importance of job satisfaction is obvious . A number of reviews were done that establish relationship between job satisfaction and productivity(G. Bassett,1994).Several studies show that employees who were dissatisfied with their jobs were proving to health setbacks, ranging from headache to heart diseases.
One of the leading theories of human decision making is Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979). It is a more psychologically accurate approach to describing human decision making, compared to the expected utility theory. In particular, an important element of prospect theory, reference-dependent preferences, is based on the main idea that an individual’s assessment of an outcome, is not only determined by the outcome itself but how the outcome compares to a reference point. In doing so, it typically assumes that outcomes relative to the reference point; are evaluated by an S-shaped value function – capturing two key components: loss aversion (suggesting losses hurt more than gains feel good) and diminishing sensitivity (by being convex in losses, but concave in gains) (Kahneman & Tversky, 1984). A leading theory of reference-dependence developed by Köszegi and Rabin (2006) assumes reference points are based on expectations, formed by the beliefs an individual held in the recent past.
According to Robbins (1998)”Job Satisfaction is a general attitude towards one’s job, usually explained by the difference between the amount of reward workers receive and the amount they believe they should receive” Job satisfaction is the collection of feelings and beliefs people have about their jobs. There are numerous theories of Job Satisfaction.1) Content theories-Abraham Maslow hierarchy needs and Herzberg’s two factor theory. Content theory suggests that Job Satisfaction occurs when one’s needs for growth and self actualization are met by the individual job.2) Process theories-Adams(1963 )and Vroom’s Equity theory,1982) these theories attempt to explain Job satisfaction by looking at expectancies and values. 3) Situation theories the
The first is editing phase in which decision makers edit a complicated decision into a simpler decision, usually specified in terms of gains versus losses. A key feature of this editing phase is that the way in which people edit or simplify a decision may vary from one moment to the next, depending on situational circumstances. Kahneman and Tversky referred this phenomenon as ‘reference dependent’, meaning that people evaluate losses and gains in terms of changes relative to their reference point. The status quo is often the reference point, but it can be an expected outcome or what people feel they are entitled to (Samuelson & Zeckhauser, 1988). Outcomes that are above the reference point are classed as gains, while any outcomes that are below the reference point are perceived as a loss.