Theories Of Expectancy Theory

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Expectancy Theory The expectancy theory in relation to work was first to develop by Victor Vroom (1964) this theory was further expanded by Porter and Lawler (1968). Vroom suggested that individuals deliberately elect a particular action based upon their desires to enhance pleasure and avoid pain (Vroom, 1964). The theory provides a process of cognitive variables that reflects individual differences in work motivation based on the assumption that people believe there are association between the effort they put in at work, the performance they accomplish, and the rewards they receive as a consequence of their effort and performance. Vroom postulated four assumptions and three components (Vroom, 1964): - People join organizations with expectations about their needs, motivations, and past experiences. (Vroom, 1964) - An individual’s behavior is a result of a choice based on expectancy calculations (Vroom, 1964). - People want different things from the organization (e.g., good salary, job security, advancement, and challenge) (Vroom, 1964). - People will choose among alternatives so as to optimize outcomes for them personally (Vroom, 1964). Vroom theorized also three components: expectancy, which is the belief that higher effort will yield better performance; instrumentality that indicate the thought that if an individual performs well, then a valued outcome will come to that individual; and valence, or the significance that a person gives to an expected outcome (Vroom,

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