Freud proposed five theories to explain the nature of the personality: Topographical model, Structural model, Libido and Thanatos, defense mechanism, psychosexual stages. In Topographical model, Freud introduced three sections of human personality. The conscious, The preconscious, and The unconscious. The conscious mind is aware about the present situation in the outer world and changes continuously with thoughts.
We will now discuss in further detail. Both Freud and Erikson recognize the importance of the unconscious development. Freud and Erikson explained that personality develops in a series of predetermined stages. They also both separate development into stages of a person’s life and utilize similar age groups for these development stages. Freud separated the development into 5 stages whereas Erikson used eight stages.
Introduction The purpose of this assignment is to compare and contrast Sigmund Freud's psychosexual theory of development and Erik Erikson's psychosocial theory of development and also whether we are able to apply different concepts of psychosexual theory of development & psychosocial theory of development in daily life. Each theory will be briefly explained and the last part of the essay will be evaluating the critics of both theories by comparing. Sigmund Freud developed his theory on five psychosexual stages. He even believed that the human personality consisted of three interworking part. They are the id, the ego and the superego.
According to Hans Eysenck, a psychologist, he believed that personality develops from the inherited genes that are from our parents. He developed Big 5 theory which consisted of 5 basis traits that he believed to make up personality. They are Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness (Maltby, Day & Macaskill, 2013). In order to highlight genes being prevalent in personality development, twin studies are compared. Monozygotic (MZ) twins are identical twins which share 100% of their genetic makeup while dizygotic
The nature versus nurture argument is one of the oldest debates amongst psychologists. The debate concerns whether certain aspects of your personality are inherited or if you learn them from your surroundings. It has long been acknowledged that our hair, skin colour and certain diseases are governed by our genes. Other physical attributes if not determined, seem to be strongly linked to the genetic makeup of our parents. Height, weight and life expectancy are all correlated between related individuals.
Throughout the years, there has been much research on the influence that heredity and genetics play in personality development. As defined by the American Psychological Association website (n.d.), “personality refers to individual differences in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving”. These characteristics help to distinguish individuals from each other. These personality traits emerge early and continue throughout the course of their lifespan. Although, personality is unique to the individual, experts in the field of psychology have studied the idea that personality is somewhat based upon biology, therefore implying that the biological makeup plays a role in a person’s personality.
In recent decades, youth studies became emerging issues among the academician, policymakers, but still in the process of developing an appropriate theory on youth deviance, social problems, sub-culture, the generation gap and social construction. The following are some of the theories relating to young people: Theory of Psychosocial development Erik Erikson’s theory of psychological development was influenced by Sigmund Freud (Erikson, 1968). Erikson too believed that personality develops in a series of stages. This theory describes the impact of social experiences across the whole lifespan. Erikson had developed eight stages of psychosocial development such as infancy (birth to 18 months), toddler (18 months to 3 years), preschooler (3 to 5 years), school age child (6 – 12 years), adolescent 13 – 19 years), young adult (20 – 39 years), middle-aged adult (40 – 55 years), late adult (55 – 65 to death).
What is the crisis experienced in Erikson’s fifth stage of psychosocial development? How did Betty resolve this stage? What is the outcome of the crisis? Was it favorable or unfavorable? a) The crisis experienced in Erikson’s fifth stage, adolescence, is identity cohesion vs. role confusion.
Many different theories have proposed in an attempt to explain lifespan development one of them is the ecological theory, which sees the role that the environment plays in influencing the growth and development of a person (Arch, Marylouise, &Spurr, 2006). This theory was formulated by an American Russian psychologist Urie Bronfenbrenner born in 1917. He developed the ecological theory to explain how everything in a child and the child 's environment affects how a child grows and develops. According to Bronfenbrenner’s theory,(1998) each of the system has an effect on one’s lifespan development the five systems in Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory are the microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem (Bronfenbrenner & Morris,
Guilt, happens within 3-5 years, and includes the ability to be a self-starter, to initiate one’s own activities and to face the crisis of having a sense of guilt, inadequacy and learn to be on one’s own. The fifth stage, Identity vs. Inferiority, which happens during puberty, is the ability to learn how things work, to understand and organize. The crisis involves a sense of inferiority at understanding and organizing. Stage six Intimacy vs. Isolation, which happens during the young adult stage.