It can be better explained by having a close look at individual criminals and their environment, culture, economic background or their social culture (Croall, 6). Additionally, crime is also related to the effects of rapid social and economic change (Durkheim qtd. in Croall). Due to the reason that individual decisions are made in a social context, crime becomes an issue due to the social, economic and cultural reasons rather than being just an individual choice or inheritance from parents. It is often suggested by some people that it is the individual offenders who commit crime based on their personal decision.
Gottfredson and Hirschi’s theory is a concept that reflects children’s levels of self-control and how it transitions to their adult life. The idea of self-control becomes a fixated trait in childhood and its effects on one’s behavior over time. People with low self-control are more prone to crime as they are focused on the now, the present, so they tend to act impulsive, without any thought of consequences and reject the notion of Empathy. Crime involves a desire, a want, an impulse, and often develop victims in relation to the offender. The idea of low self-control is a reflection of ineffective parenting according to Gottfredson and Hirschi.
Strain theory says that crimes are committed when people “experience a conflict between goals and the means available to obtain the goals” (Pg.127). This is especially true for lower class citizens that commit crimes to achieve what they see as success and feel they cannot obtain otherwise. An example of this can be seen in the poor populations that want to have money but turn to drug dealing because they feel they cannot get a job to make that money. This example of innovation is one of the modes of adaptation that Merton outlines in the book. Another way that the strain theory is adapted is rebellion.
2. In criminological/sociological study, what are some of the limitations to defining “crime” as only those actions in violation of criminal law? Do you feel that criminologists should limit their study in this way? Support your response. Crime is learned from a person’s interaction within a given society.
A person generally knows what society accepts as right and wrong by the time they are a teenager. They also know that violating those societal values has certain punishments. Juveniles are not so smart to not exploit their age as a way of abrogating their responsibility for their actions. It appears that our justice system has bought into that particular fallacy. It is my opinion that when a person is mentally capable of understanding both the law and morality that they are capable of being, and should be, tried as an adult.
The main contribution of the theory, though, is the realization of the possible relationship between criminal behavior or inclinations towards it and flaw in the childhood’s relationships or experience that are related or not to the parents (Sammons, n.d.) The behavioral theory, on the other hand, first explained by Gabriel Tarde, is being utilized in a way that focuses on the behavior modeling and social learning (Psychological theories of crime, n.d.). A major common characteristic of criminals is that they are more likely to be insane, exhibit poor social behavior and be unintelligent. The behavioral theory defines that individuals learn from each other and eventually imitate one another. In particular, relevant to the criminology field is the social learning theory (Psychological theories of crime, n.d.)
In the article “On the Punishment of Teen Killers” Jennifer Jenkins argues on the behalf of victims’ families. She claims that juvenile crime is social issue as American culture promotes violence in youth, “we in America have to own this problem, with weapons so easily available to our youth, and the violence-loving culture in which we bring them in” (par. 5). Although, Jenkins claims that teenagers should be given life without parole, this quote directly challenges her argument. Jenkins explicitly states that “America has to own this problem”. She then lists reasons for juvenile criminals to be a problem particular to America.
A public defender says in a short documentary that, “We are seeing far too many young offenders entering the adult system who should be dealt with in the juvenile system”, and that a way some juvenile offenders are treated far worse than they deserve. Just because juveniles made bad decisions in their youth does not mean that they should be given a life sentence or put on death row, because they were just children who made some terrible mistakes. The people that think juveniles deserve the worst punishment they can get are probably don't understand that juveniles don’t really know what they are doing and it most likely isn’t always their own
In chapter 10 of “Introduction to Social Problems” Thomas J. Sullivan explains Crime and delinquency by types of crime that are considered as social problems, social characteristics, and ways to help alleviate the problem of crime. The social problem that is happening in crime and delinquency are that young people are being sent to prison for the crimes they are committing, and they are not being educated, helping them make better decisions, or create a better future for themselves instead of going in and out of prison. In the definition social problem it says, “the condition can be remedied by collective action”(3). Teenagers are deviating from group values and norms. They first start rebelling against their parents rules and deciding to do what they want.
Delincuency Delinquency is an act which violates or distorts the social norm, rule of law, norm group generates riot or disturb and harm himself and his public tranquility, so that the authorities are forced to take security measures. Syafei (scientists Sociology) suggests that juvenile delinquency or in the English language is known as Juvenile delinquency is a social pathological symptoms in adolescents is caused by a form of ignoring the sosial.akibatnya, developed a form of deviant behavior. Santrock argued that juvenile delinquency is a collection of various adolescent behaviors that are not socially acceptable to occur criminal acts. Behaviour 'naughty ' teens can be caused by internal factors and external factors: • Internal factors Internal factors, namely a factor derived from the juvenile concerned itself.
Juvenile detention centers are purposeful ways to assist delinquent juveniles to become law abiding proactive members of society while promoting the safety of society and themselves. Yet, the way most institutions, in particular Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center (CCJTDC) treat juveniles in their center has violated their essential right to be treated as humans, cast them as oppressive beings, and does not adequately facilitate their re-transition into society. While I agree that there should be a degree of penalty for breaking laws, there is a clear line between punishment that is just and that which is unjust. Punishment for the sake of realigning an individual’s behavior to comply with social order is just, however punishment
One way to discipline delinquents or to remove them from society is to incarcerate them. Being surrounded by inmates whom you cannot relate to, not only on a mental level, but on a level of criminal activity is not the ideal setting for a juvenile to be placed in. When this occurs, youth then have to find ways to protect themselves. Which can result to further deviant behavior. "Studies have shown that continuing delinquent youth in correctional facilites will return to the same adverse environment".
This theory states that all people have the potential to become criminals because modern society presents many opportunities for illegal activity but one has the choice to not engage. If a child is raised in a clean community that has strong morals and if that child has positive role models at home and in the community, they more likely to grow up achieving her goals. In all while it maybe true that your surroundings and the people around you can be the reason behind someone becoming apart of the criminal justice system, but in my oppioin I believe it the person themselves. Whether we like it or not we know right from wrong, we may not see it when we are young but as time progresses we become
These attributes can be something that a person has no control over, such as their race or socio-economic background. Criminalization is not often based on laws, but instead revolves around customs that others have been understood as good or bad, which can later lead to laws. This idea consists of the reinterpretation of everyday actions or ideas and vilifying them (Merry 14 -15). In the cases of children there exists the idea that a child who commits a violent and heinous crime will only become more violent and will continue to commit crimes. Therefore, once a despicable act has been committed by a child he or she becomes labeled as a violent criminal.
Factors like maltreatment in childhood, neighbourhood disadvantage and poor monitoring in adolescents need to be scrutinized in this research. A childhood with trauma and even poor parenting can contribute towards the onset of criminal behaviour in a child or adolescent. A child’s relationship with his/her parents can be a deciding factor which can shape the future of a child. The issue of juvenile delinquency has been plaguing the society since a long time. We need to understand the underlying factors which transform innocent young people into criminal offenders.