He came to the conclusion that the study of meaning cannot be successfully dealt with either within etymology, or syntax and that is why a new branch of linguistics ‘semasiology’ was needed, whose task would be to discover rule governing the development of word meaning. His main intention was to focus on semantic change which shows the “unfolding of the train of thought with regard to the meaning of the words” (Reisig 1890:1) to provide “a derivation of all subsequent meanings from the first in a logical and historical order” (Reisig 1890:2). For Reisig language and language change are brought by a dynamic interplay of several forces, he has got it from his knowledge of ‘German idealism’ on one hand and ‘romantic movement on other hand (Brigitte Nerlich 1930). Reisig says that “there are general laws of the human mind which are also the laws of language” and from this statement of Reisig we come to know about ‘logical’ explanation of semantic change, but there are also ‘historical forces’, such as normal language use in a certain culture and historical setting. Reisig’s approach to semantic change are modernize because of its given social factor of the discontinuity between speaker and hearer as the principle factor was ‘semantic change and grammaticalization’.
‘Principles of linguistic change – Social factors’, by William Labov is the second volume of Labov’s three volume work of Language Change, which was preceded and followed by ‘Principles of linguistic change – Internal Factors’ and ‘Cognitive and cultural factors’ respectively. William Labov has been a prominent voice in American linguistics since the early 1960s. He pioneered an approach to investigate the relationship between language and society and developed a new area of study and analysis known as “variationist sociolinguistics” - A central doctrine of this field holds that variation or language change is inherent to the linguistic structure. The three volumes address the principles underlying linguistic change and the second volume
• No orthography or written materials in it. • Language shift has taken place such that the language has been or is being replaced by another language. • On the verge of extinction. The above view shows that when a language is moving gradually towards extinction as a result of the users’ attitude, it is an indication that a culture is going out of existence. It is a pointer that the story of a people is about to be lost.
Good morning everyone. We already know as AS English Language students, that English is constantly changing. It has developed and enriched over the course of time. There are many reasons for this language change. But, what I found particularly interesting is the influence of euphemisms in the way we change language according to what we think is appropriate to use and to avoid in certain situations.
Change. It is a microscopic aspect of life that everything on earth experiences at one point during their existence. Change is inevitable; it is everywhere, even when one does not take the time to notice it. To some, change is a normal part of life, and when it occurs, they learn how to adapt to that new change and they continue on with their lives. For others, change can be very drastic.
However, there is a degree of allowance that an idiom can be changed to vary from the original idiom in order to convey a specific meaning in which the user of the idiom intend to convey in their spoken or written works. And these changes can be seen in the syntactic structure of the idioms. This paper aims to study the variations of idioms in term of cognitive factors in the use of idioms and the syntactical features that are
Language death can happen to any variety of a language including dialects or standard languages. Language death has different causes that depend on the different situation of every society. On the other hand, we can identify three typed of language death. First
It is very well agreed upon that language is ever-changing. It is either given a chance to evolve, or it stagnates and it dies. There are many circumstances that contribute to the growth – the evolution of a language. Sometimes, language not only changes, but diverges and becomes something very different from its original. This divergence is influenced by time as it is passed from culture to culture, and generation to generation.
The language is constantly changing, with old phrases becoming obsolete and new phrases frequently entering everyday usage, reflecting changes in their culture and also maintaining exclusivity. The dynamic nature of the language refuses to cement itself in a single culture and allows for more freedom of expression among its speakers. Words and phrases can be created to react to popular trends and create alternatives to a strictly defined
The Sociolinguistic term ‘language shift’ was coined by the renowned linguist Uriel Weinreich, he defined language shift as ‘the change from the habitual use of one language to that of another’ (Mesthrie, Rajend, Joan Swann, Ana Deumert, and William L. Leap 245). Language shift does not occur abruptly, instead, language shift in itself is a rather complex process accompanied by stages of bilingualism (Kamwangamalu 226). The process of language shift is especially hard in an extremely multilingual and historically rich country such as South Africa. In the early 90s, when Apartheid was officially abolished, a new language policy was instituted that declared that all languages, among them the indigenous ones, were to be treated equally. However, as English, together with Afrikaans, were the initial official languages of South Africa, English remained the dominant language of business, politics and media even after this new language policy was introduced (de Klerk, Bosch 353).