All these concepts are looked upon as different ways of trying to make visible the textual category of translator. All these factors, explain why things have turned out the way they did. The answer is because the translator adhered to certain norms, ideologies and certain conceptions on interpretation of the source text. Then the question of why did he adhere to those particular norms comes into existence. In a nut shell, descriptive translational studies takes into its fold translator’s conception of the source text as it emerges from the target text.
Language through literature is a highly effective way of knowing, learning and mastering any language. Instead of enhancing the skills oflanguage like listening, speaking, reading and writing through exercises, like gap filling, multiple-choice questions. matching the words etc., it would be appropriate to provide a literary text to acquire the language skills. That is, instead of filling in the blanks which would only provide the clue about a particular language skill or concept, it would be better to provide a literary content which would convey the usage of that particular concept. So what makes the difference is the interest of the reader or the learner; he would be more interested to read the literary texts and so the language concepts would get into his mind very easily rather than filling in the blanks.
One way to solve this problem is to find a new rhythm in local language. Secondly, it is necessary to know the object and subject in the activity of translation aesthetics. The subject of translation aesthetic are translator and reader. At the first step, translator is required to have a special capability of aesthetic. It is translator’s knowledge, experience and level of language finally decides the quality of translation of a text.
Considering Khayyam’s Rubaiyat and Fitzgerald’s translation in the realm of discourse studies and ideological concepts is included in the main aim of this research. Besides, by choosing the concept of “voice” which can be a more comprehensive term including all the previous concepts, the researcher has tried to find the more reliable answers for the research questions. “Voice” is one of the new themes in discourse studies and discourse analysis, especially critical discourse analysis. Finding the voice in a piece of poetry means finding the ideological and social-political tenets existed in the text. The reflected voice in a text goes under so many changes in the process of translation.
Reader response criticism is a literary critical theory. It is promoted and developed by a variety of literary theorists and critics. Depending on the person advancing the concept, the theory may take on any number of nuanced meanings. Generally speaking however, reader response criticism suggests that a text gains meaning by the purposeful act of a reader’s reading and interpreting it. The relationship between reader and text is highly valued; text does not exist without a reader.
Writers must show some form of cohesion and coherence in their presentation of ideas . At the discourse level, analysis of cohesion provides a useful measure of t he effectiveness and quality of written text. In addition to having knowledge about the internal features of written texts, familiarity with different genres can affect writing quality of the learners to a large extent. The notion of genre is defined as ab stract, socially recognized ways of using language, which are purposeful communicative activities employed by members of a particular discourse community .Argumentative writing is a fundamental writing style which is required
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of The Study Literature is one of the interesting subjects to be studied. A person or an author could express their feelings by literature. There are some definitions of Literature that could make the readers easily to understand about literature. According to Klarer (2004:1) that in most cases, literature is referred to as the entirety of written expression, with the restriction that not every written document can be categorized as literature in the more exact sense of the word. The definitions, therefore, usually include additional adjectives such as aesthetic or artistic to distinguish literary works from texts such as newspapers, scientific textbooks, magazines, legal documents, brochures, and so on.
In this literary system translated literature and original literature stand together and they interact with one another. The contribution of this point of view to the Translation Studies is; it makes the translator to think much more inclusively about the text by looking at the text’s surroundings, by questioning “why these texts are translated? how they are translated? and how they interact each other?”. When it is looked at many text, now that it is known they should be comprehended together, there is a new field to study on about how this interaction between the texts woks.
Khazaeifar(1384) believes that concept of literary translation can be defined according to two principles . These two principles are derived from the concept of literary translation. According to the first principle, the translation must be faithful to the original as possible. In second principle, translation should be a literary work with the target language standards. The importance of this definition is evident when we compare it with the commonly used definition of literary translation.
The ethnographers on the other hand aim for a methodical description of culture laying emphasis on the avenues and commodities of culture. While both these disciplines can effectively be categorized under the umbrella term of “life writing”, the distinctions converge in the melting pot of the label of autoethnography. It simulates a framework of conjunction between the two wherein the autoethnographer strikes the chord with the reader by not only indulging in a revelation of the torturous turbulences that the self has had to deal with, but also levels as a first hand narrative agency elaborating the cultural practices and the identities which take shape or evolve to perform as entities of culture. The self’s ethnic identity takes the limelight and a deliberate effort is visible on behalf of the writer to foreground his experiences as part of the community than as an