Gender consists of men as well as women. In various attempts to understand gender, the concept of sex roles was introduced; and sometimes men and women were treated as simple categories. The most suitable approach is to treat gender as a system of social relations (Connell). According to Raewyn Connell “[m]asculinities are the patterns of social practice associated with the position of men in any society’s set of gender relations”. Moreover, differences in bodily forms is not a firm determining factor of gender patterns; one could rather see it as a reference point in gender practices.
Masculinity describes those behaviors, traits, and practices that are associated with males in a specific society. Masculinity, or rather multiple, flexible masculinities, are embedded in gender relations and defined in contrast to femininity. Masculinities are not biologically determined but shaped by the institutions men are embedded in and constructed in everyday life. This means that masculinity is contradictory and dynamic. Masculinity is what men do rather than what or how they are.
The perpetuation of hegemony occurs thanks to consent from the oppressed that even strengthens hegemony itself (Gramsci in Adams & Dickey, 2000). Specifically, hegemonic masculinity concept is first formulated by Connell (1987) to depict values across various cultures that contribute to the definition of “real men” and justify male dominance. This masculinity is later attributable to rock subculture, and later aids to the hierarchial identity (Adams & Dickey, 2000). Bourdieu (2001) further elaborates about the
Masculinity has been classified differently depending upon the approach of the researcher. Joanna Bourke outlines the five ways masculinity can be conceptualized, including biological, whereby masculinity is a product of the biological makeup of men; socialization, where masculinity is a result of the “proper” socialization of men; psychoanalytical, whereby differing masculinities are formed as a result of varying socio-historical and cultural environments; discourse, where masculinity is an outcome of discourses; and feminism, where patriarchy not only restricts men but also reinforces the oppression of women. There are multiple versions of masculinity within any ‘one’ social context. Robert Morrell explains, “Boys and men choose how to behave and this choice is made from a number of available repertoires. Such choices are never entirely free, because the available repertoires differ from context to context and because the resources from which masculinity is constructed are unevenly distributed.” Thus, men in different social positions have different resources available to them for the successful demonstration of their manhood and the successful construction of a masculine identity.
In her words: “To speak of masculinities is to speak about gender relations. […] They can be defined as the patterns of practice by which people (both men and women, though predominantly men) engage that position.”
Analysis Nivea’s Advertisement – Gender Objectification Gender is the differences between males and females culturally and socially. The difference was found in the meanings, beliefs, and practices associated with ‘femininity’ and ‘masculinity’. Objectification is a process. This process is an individual treat some people as an object instead of human being. In our culture, mostly women have treated ad their object from the past till now.
Gender is a culturally constructed factor that refers to the behaviours and attitudes a particular society expects from males and females, depending on their biological sex. Media through its messages, have played and continues to play an important part in the forming and reinforcing of gender stereotypes and the expectations about gender roles. Much has been written about the portrayal of women and stereotyping in the media and in advertising. However, there are a number of advertisements that target men, trying
Gender stereotypes in Thailand According to Foucault, “we are gendered through the power of regulated and regulatory discourses” (Barker 291). Gender stereotypes are discourses that were culturally constructed and naturalized to become the universal truth. These stereotypes originated from gender roles that classified men and women into two groups of being that represented in different ways.
The term gender, as opposed to the concept of sex, refers to the non-physiological aspects of identifying an individual as male or female. The genre is a product of cultural and subjective constructs that constantly change over time, context and environment. So, when it comes to gender differences, there is more talk about differences and explicit or implicit attributes between men and women in a spectrum resulting from socialization. In fact, it is the differences between the sexes that socialization has inculcated, which is attributed to femininity and masculinity. From a summary point of view, if sex is our biology, then everything else is the genre.