Theories Of Masculinity

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Constructing masculinities
Masculinities are the patterns of social practice associated with the position of men in any society’s set of gender relations (Connell, 2005).
Masculinity is not genetic trait that men are born with , rather it is acculturated, composed of social norms of behaviour, which they learn to reproduce in culturally appropriate ways (Beynon, 2002).
Connell, (2005) defines masculinities as the pattern or configuration of social practices linked to the position of men in the gender order, and socially distinguished from practices linked to the position of women. Configuration of practice in everyday life is substantially a social construction.

When concepts of masculinity are addressed by society at a macro level, the
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Arising from these challenges came a certain crisis of masculinity where traditional and previously unproblematic notions of masculinity were now being seen as problematic (Page, 1999). Masculinity is contexted in gender relations, the practices through which men and women engage, and the effects of these practices in bodily experiences, personality and culture (Connell 1995). Masculinity is interpolated by cultural, historical and geographical location, and in our time the combined influence of feminism and other gender movements has exploded the concept of uniform masculinity. Even sexuality is no longer held to be fixed or inborn. When we relate masculinity to culture it immediately becomes evident that in terms of acting out, masculinity is a varied, movable, even unstable, construction. Consequently whenever ‘masculinity’ appears it should not be read as implying uniformity but, it is diverse and different in different cultures(Beynon, 2002).
In reality, men worldwide have never shared the same formation of masculinity as anthropology demonstrates. It is interpreted, practiced and experienced in culturally specific ways as per their culture and society (Cornwall & Lindisfarne,
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According to Pleck (1995) masculinity is being referred to, sets of culturally defined principles of masculinity to which men are expected to hold on (Pleck, 1995).
Support of the traditional male roles and norms by individuals, groups and society referred to as the masculinity ideology (Levant, 1995). Thompson and Pleck (1986) noted that a particular collection of dimensions upon which some individuals base their notion of masculinity is masculinity philosophy. However, these dimensions are defined as toughness (in the physical as well as the mental and emotional sense), norms related to status and, finally, the anti-femininity norm. While the dimension of toughness refers to the prospect that men need to be strong, experienced and capable of solving their emotional problems in an appropriate way, the status dimension is defined as labour, economic and professional success, and it is generally associated with a high income (Thompson & Pleck,
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