Kohlberg proposed that moral reasoning advanced through six stages of moral development, stages 1 to 4 occurred through a “natural evolution of cognitive skills,” while stages 5 and 6 require a teacher (Williams & Arrigo, , p. 123). Moreover, Kohlberg proposed that there were three levels of moral development, each categorized by two stages. Preconventional Morality (Lv. I) is categorized by self-interest, first existent ages 1 through 10. Kohlberg’s stage 1: punishment obedience orientation, is categorized by a perception influenced by punishment and reward.
The self-fulfilling prophecy operates as a subset of the stereotype theory because it does not encompass the full range of options that the stereotype theory does. It looks at the effect placed on children at the micro level of a teacher’s influence, rather than the macro level of the society, family, and community that the stereotype theory looks at. While the stereotype theory and the self-fulfilling prophecy have some similarities, it is the opportunity to break free of the expectations placed upon a person that separates the two
He then goes on to say “although many women are better than men in many things” (455d). Based on Plato’s assertions it is clear that he views women as inferior as a whole to men, but not enough to justify excluding them from governing and playing significant roles in the city. Elaborating on this Plato states “men and women are by nature the same with respect to guarding the city, except to the extent that one is weaker” (456a). It follows that women contain the qualities needed to be guardians, albeit to a lesser degree. Although one may be weaker because of their sex, it does not suffice to hold them back if they contain the qualities needed for being a guardian.
The fact that gender-differentiated socialization exists in society cannot be disputed. Equally, to find that differences do emerge with regard to speaking styles between men and women is not surprising. However, by failing to associate gender arrangements to the power arrangements that they promote and enforce is naïve in an intellectual way. Considering the highly integrated lives of the American men and women, to assign full-fledged cultural status to patterns that emerge out of socialization is of doubtful validity. Besides, Tannen moves from the initial premise that boys and girls grow up in two distinct cultures, which is a disputed fact, to the questionable claim that problems with communication between adult males and females are equivalent to other types of cross-cultural miscommunication.
Stage 2 of his moral development is called instrumental hedonism. In here, some consideration is given to the conflicting interests of other parties and an effort is made to strike a balance. Children in this stage try to solve problems by trying to attain equilibrium and one way of getting it is by appeasing their peers. Their peers in return, turn as their support system in times of stress. Overall, the theoretical framework captures the different human developmental stages where late childhood and early adolescent lies according to various theorists.
According to Koenig, Mitchell, Eagly and Ristikari (2011), studies on gender stereotyping attribute these findings to gender inequality, since the characteristics of leadership roles are ascribed more to men than women. It is suggested that masculine traits which attributed to men are more likely to be associated with leadership roles than feminine traits which attributed to women. Specifically, leadership roles tend to correlate more strongly with men than women as women characteristics stereotypically do not qualify the expectations for leaders. However, the result on Eagly and Johnson (1990) research shown women have a higher tendencies to be more interpersonally oriented and tend to lead using a more democratic style as compared to men which focused on more task-oriented and autocratic style of leadership. Accordingly, gender difference between leadership style of men and women were small in which weakened to the extent that a role was dominated by men.
• Stage 6: “Ethical Principle Orientation” (Psychology and Life, 2013); The main aim of stage 6 is to create a fair and just world where justice can be achieved Carol Gilligan’s Criticisms of Kohlberg Gilligan had some major criticisms of Kohlberg’s theory which she addressed in her book ‘In A Different Voice’ (1982). One of Gilligan’s main issues was the fact that there was a male biased viewpoint due to the fact that he did not have any women in his research sample. According to Gilligan’s research, women tend to value caring over justice leaving Kohlberg’s study one sided or “biased”. Culture and Morality Gold et al. conducted a study in 2014 which involved the “trolley problem”.
INTRODUCTION In this assignment, I will discuss the ethical issues in marketing to children from a utilitarianism perspective. Marketing to children can be defined as the “act of marketing or advertising products or services to children”. There have been controversies surrounding the issue of marketing to children with regard to whether it is ethical or unethical. Utilitarianism on the other hand is defined as the ethical theory which finds the basis of moral distinctions in the utility of actions (their fitness to produce happiness). Utilitarianism is part of consequentialist theories which assess moral right and wrong in terms of the consequences of the actions.
However, it differs from this well-known literature because, first, uncertainty does not prevent the formation of a socially optimal care level and this is true for strict liability. Second, strict liability and negligence cannot be easily compared but under special conditions. Indeed, enforcing a given liability regime strongly influences the injurers’ behavior. For instance, the institutionalizing negligence involves allocating the Court a higher status than under strict liability because the injurers will refer to the judges’ decisions who “makes” the socially first best care level. Consequently, this issue introduces some strong asymmetry between both regimes.
I also wish she would have included more information about the different types of polyamorous relationships and their ability to handle conflict. For example, maybe relationships with two women and one man are better at handling conflict than relationships with two men and one woman, or vice versa. It also would have been interesting if Khazan had included an example of a polyamorous relationship that did not work as well as the others, to show differences in success