Theories Of Workplace Motivation

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Motivation in the Workplace Motivation is referred to as “internal factors that impel action and to external factors that can act as inducements to action” (Locke and Latham 2004, p388). Motivation is an intrinsic part of any successful business, creating a work environment which not only pushes employees to reach their full potential but also nurtures their physiological and psychological needs. I will examine two motivational theories, firstly Herzberg’s Hygiene Theory, followed by Equity Theory. I will conduct a critical analysis of both theories highlighting the benefit of each theory from a managerial perspective and also bring forward any flaws or weaknesses I find. I will look at extrinsic motives; tangible/physical things e.g. pay…show more content…
His initial interviews were conducted on engineers and accountants, both highly skilled and intellectual jobs, would he have obtained the same results from ‘lower’ or ‘less-complex’ jobs such as cleaners or waiters? Also younger people don’t focus on job content and care more about income and job security, factors Herzberg deems as hygiene factors (World Economic Forum 2016). Herzberg also views pay and promotion as a hygiene factor, but in some cases, recognition may be given in the form of bonuses or promotion. Finally, many other studies have been conducted using the Hygiene theory and different results have been acquired, even some of Herzberg’s studies found data which contradicted his own…show more content…
Stacy Adams believed that when there is inequity people will react in several different ways, some will justify the inequity by downplaying their efforts, eg ‘I don’t work that hard so I don’t deserve what that person earns’, or highlighting the referents inputs, eg ‘that person is more qualified than me so deserves better pay’. However, his theory relies on the following reaction, if the person perceiving the inequity increases or decreases their inputs to match the referents outcomes to create a more equal work environment. This was shown to be true in a study with piece-rate employees. Those who felt they were being underpaid increased quantity and reduced quality in order to achieve the same pay as other workers. Those who felt they were overpaid reduced quantity while keeping the quality the same, again trying to achieve and equal pay across the board (Kanfer 1990). To put into practice managers should try to make sure each employee is treated fairly in relation to their inputs and outcomes. Equity theory can be very hard to implement, managers may not be able to see the inequity between employees. A huge risk of inequity within the workplace is the possibility the employee may withdraw from the situation and

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