Motivation is the force within a person that affect the direction, intensity and persistence of voluntary behavior. We would look at the different methods and theory that mangers used motivate employees. Employee motivation is the level of energy, commitment and creativity that a firm’s workers bring to their jobs. There are many core theories for employee motivations these include: Maslow’s needs hierarchy, McClelland’s learned needs theory and four drive theory, ERG theory and the equity theory. However, there are also popular rational decision model of employee motivation which include expectancy theory.
Disciplines have adopted teamwork as essential in achieving success and their mission statements routinely allude to the importance of teamwork, utilizing such words as cooperation, coordination, collaboration, and Communication as key components. A number of theoretical arguments have been developed to explain why team working might .Lead to improved organizational performance. Some theories focus on the effort and motivation of individual workers and claim that they work harder. Teamwork is the process of working collaboratively with a group of people in order to achieve a goal. The external factors of teamwork are the political, economic, social and technological factors that affect teamwork whiles the internal factors of teamwork constitute leadership style, diversity (culture, talent and personalities) communication, cohesiveness etc.
Goals must be challenging for employees to achieve so that they have the motivation to finish up the task given. The more difficult the task, the greater the achievement. Locke 's theory states that there is a relationship between how difficult and
Individual employees with high needs tend to desire for encouragement and appreciation from others. These employees with high affiliation are motivated by being recognized for their effort. Furthermore, McClelland stated that employees with achievement motives are motivated by the challenge of success and the fear of failure. These employees tend to be very analytical in nature and are prepared to take certain risks beyond their capabilities for the success of their organization. Such employees are usually motivated when they are able to identify a scanty vacuum of success within the organization.
According to Byron & Khazanchi (2012) when employees exceed their workings or outshine their way of performing activities they must be rewarded punctually as a technique for encouragement. Through these measures, employees work even harder with utmost level of satisfaction and motivation in order to gain these rewards provided by the company. Besides, the effective reward structures should also distillate on the optimistic feedback and response. Elevating feedback strengthens the behaviour of the employees within an organisation. This stimulates employees to take constructive actions by giving their best to the business.
Introduction: The study of human behavior at work aims to find reasons why individuals are motivated to do things enthusiastically. The level of motivation can differ in people depending on their situation. For example how there are many ways to assist mangers to motivate employees more effectively. Motivation can range from money to credit for a job well done. Fredrick Herzberg also suggest that behavioral science can help mangers understand and identify ways to help motivate employees more effectively.
The authors of this theory argue that to enhance motivation, thereby generating performance, goals must be challenging (but attainable), specific, self- set (involving employees) and measurable. The study is also based on the motivation theory of Frederich Herzberg in his book ‘The motivation to work’. The theory explains the factors of an individual’s motivation by identifying their needs and desires, what satisfies their needs and desires and by establishing the aims that they pursue to satisfy these desires. Two factors central to Hertzberg’s theory are Hygiene and Motivation factors. The hygiene factors (e.g.
.3.2 Models of motivation: Employees Motivation Model From the above employee motivation model, we can notice that the identification of the need deficiency is the first step in the model. The satisfaction of the basic needs enhances the strength of employee’s work. Hence the employees will be motivated to work towards the goals. The changes in the performance behaviours can be noticed. Depending on the evaluation of the performance, the next is to decide for the rewards and punishment.
INTRODUCTION Background of the Study According to Huczynski and Buchanan (2007) ,“Motivation” is “A sets of goals towards which human behaviour is directed; the process through which those goals are pursued and achieved and the social factors involved”. The types of motivation are intrinsic and extrinsic. “Intrinsic motivation is a psychological force that determines the way of a person’s behavior as a result of challenging or interesting work, giving autonomy to work, designed scope to develop skills, abilities, opportunity to develop and grow, etc. Extrinsic is also psychological force that determines behavioral change as a result of tangible and intangible benefit such as salary, fringe benefit and special awards” (Gareth and Jennifer, 2003).
The ability to attain and accomplish the goal of an organization is associated with the composition of tasks of an individual worker through a co-ordinated job design that will encourage performance using various motivational methods (Behson, Eddy, & Lorenzet, 2000) and training programmes (Kotila, 2001). The principle of job enrichment in the practice of human resource management has tremendously been seen as a dynamic process of increasing the work structures and processes with an environment that gives room for autonomy, flexibility, personal growth and satisfaction to the workplace (Aguinis, 2009). Several studies have indicated that when tasks are routine, monotonous, repetitive and unrewarding with an over controlled authority structure, workers tend to be highly dissatisfied, bored and de-motivated. Job enrichment in organizational development has contributed in reducing these de-motivating factors by giving employees the right of decision making (Derek, & Laura, 2000), and control over their task in order to promote healthier performance to the workplace (Garman, Davis-Lenane, and Corrigan,