This model works with individuals who are at high risk for violence and are severely mentally ill or emotionally disturbed (James & Gilliland, 2017). The risk principle of the model matches specific services to the clients (Bonta & Andrews, 2007). The needs principle examines and focuses on the client’s criminogenic needs. The responsivity principle provides interventions that focus on the clients learning style, motivations, and ability and strengths (Bonta & Andrews, 2007). The risk needs responsivity model implements cognitive behavioral therapy, social skills training, anger management, role rehearsal, modeling, and shaping of prosocial behavior (James & Gilliland, 2017).
The officers failed to consider the broader context and potential ramifications of their actions. It could be argued that alternatives, such as engaging with the youths, building a rapport and educating them, as well as treating them with respect and fairness, rather than escalating the situation and disparaging the character of the youths, could allow officers to not only comply with policy and legislation, but also more effectively police their community by building positive relationships, channels of communication, and reduction of future crime (Chan, Bargen, Luke and Clancey 1997). However, these alternatives require the appropriate use of discretion which the officers failed to
In criminology, differential association is a theory developed by Edwin Sutherland proposing that through interaction with others, individuals learn the values, attitudes, techniques, and motives for criminal behavior. The differential association theory is the most talked about of the learning theories of deviance. (DAT). (Sutherland) (Sociological Theories of Crime and Their Explanation on Crime , 2007) Theories of criminality are most commonly derived from human behavior. I chose the movie American history X and the theory is Sutherland’s differential Association theory (DAT).
Attending to secondary stressors that come about as a consequence of the bereavement is considered as the phase of restoration-oriented coping. Fundamentally, the DPM deﬁnes adaptive coping as involving alternation between loss- and future-orientations, between approach and avoidant coping, and between negative and positive reappraisals. Thus, the DPM speciﬁes the major adaptive tasks associated with bereavement, speciﬁc cognitive processes associated with each adaptive task, and describes what “effective” coping might look like in this context. DPM, known for its characteristic pattern of oscillation, is helpful in explaining adjustment to bereavement and may be helpful as identifying adaptive coping. This model can also be used to depict the coping approaches used by young adults in handling their daily stressors
The target can be a person or an object, whose place or occasion puts it at more or less risk of culprit attackers. These attackers influenced a target risk elements called VIVA, which is the value, inertia, visibility and access. In contrast to theories of criminality, which are centred on the figure of the criminal and the psychological, biological, or social factors that motivated the criminal act, the focus of routine activity is the study of crime as an outcome, feature its relation to space and time and feature its ecological nature and the implications thereof (Mirὀ F., 2014). (Cohen and Felson (1979) “Social change and crime rate trends: A routine activity
While the retributive justice system primarily focuses on the community response to offending, thereby totally ignoring the legitimate needs of the victims, the restorative justice system works on the idea of victim empowerment. Having said that, we also have to take into account the recent paradigm shift, which has been a result of the various movements against the deficiencies in the current criminal justice system. The Courts are slowly making certain changes in the sentencing policies by paying heed to the wailings of the victims, one major instance being that of the scope for victim compensation under the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973. The Supreme Court has taken a pro-active role and resorted to affirmative action to protect the rights of victims of sexual offences. Since restorative justice is an emerging concept in India, previous research on this area clearly points out that the main difference between restorative and retributive approaches is the former’s emphasis on reintegration, restitution and reparation.
Question #1 The paradigm of policy analysis is best described as a model that identifies patterns, defines an apparent problem (criminal behavior), and develops research designs and policies that address concerns produced by criminal behavior (Walker, Ch. 2). Given this, theory and research are essential to policy examination with emphasis on the theoretical advancement between the fields of criminal justice and criminology in how they report policy effectiveness (Cooper & Worrall, 2012). From a practical perspective continuing a policy that is wasteful of police time and resources if they fail to prevent or reduce criminal behavior. Continuing ineffective policy is atheoretical (Ibid.
According to Kohlberg, morality is a part of reasoning, not behavior. Behaviors that are can be considered moral are those that are determined by high level moral reasoning. Lying, cheating, and stealing are considered immoral for it follows low-level conceptions of morality. However, such behaviors are not considered moral or immoral by definition (Krebs & Rosenwald, 1994). As individuals achieve higher cognitive ability, they are more capable of more complex reasoning about moral issues.
The key elements of aggressive behavior with motive to induce hurtful negative results happen, and victim is a human being and victim inclined to prevent and escape from harm physically and psychologically (Malamuth & Addison, 2001). Edleson (1999) purposed that children encountered regular violence at homes acquire barbaric and barbaric-permissive behaviours to interrelationships in adulthood (Kovacs & Tomison,
This also helps the client to view the external factors rather than attributing the situations to the internal factors. Thus, helping them view their psychological problems or distress which resulted from a particular “traumatic” event that they experienced rather than those inherent defects and most especially to develop a sense of self, confidence and dignity. V. Implication The case study that was presented can also be related to the vulnerability-stress model, disease model of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders and biological models such as regarding about the roles of biological factors (internal) versus the adaptable and learned vulnerability factors (external) in understanding the disorder. Furthermore, there are indeed multiple causes which can contribute to the origin of schizophrenia (biological and psychological) where social-cognitive researchers have expanded in terms of personality factors, interpersonal strategies and cognitive vulnerabilities. These social-cognitive factors represent adapted and learned inclinations rather than the person’s biological traits.
There are three specific techniques of structured dyadic behavioral therapy.The first one is behavioral goal setting. Behavioral therapy applies both operant and classical conditioning. These principles are used to support the performance of desired behaviors and reduce those that are undesired. In order for this to work the patient must understand the behavioral expectations and the reinforcements must be thought of as a reward. According to Luman at el.
f. Integrated treatment is when a combination of cognitive behavioral methods are used in treating co-occurring disorders (COD) along with substance abuse treatment. This includes doing an analysis of any link between Axis I or Axis II symptoms for substance abuse including any rumored criminal conduct, determining coping skills for behavioral and cognitive shortfalls, and providing the means to train both behavioral, and cognitive coping skills that is tailored to the clients specific needs. These target the clients three specific behavioral needs; evidence of any mental health disorders, criminal behavior, and substance abuse. For example the clinician has assessed and diagnosed a veteran with alcohol substance abuse and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Because the client has had a drinking problem for a
Most will often wonder if there is actually a future in the juvenile justice system and if so what does it include? Today the juvenile system is known as a weak system that does not actually provide much help for juveniles. Although, this system is effective for a few juveniles, it does not work for them all. The juvenile justice system is the primary system that they use on juveniles who are caught committing crime. The system is put into place in hopes it will deter juveniles away from future crimes to keep their life on track.
The grandiose narcissist copes with difficulties in self-esteem by viewing themselves as superior and unique and by engaging in grandiose fantasies. Narcissists are very exploitative, entitled, envious, aggressive, especially when they are distressed. As related to borderline, Narcissistic Personality disorder is strongly associated with a history of childhood adversity, including physical abuse and neglect, and with having a parent who was abused or had a previous mental problem. The potential forms of treatments of disorders will be directed to cognitive and psychodynamic approaches. Cognitive therapies have found means to help clients identify and challenge their negative thoughts and dysfunctional belief symptoms.
According to Travis and Latessa, the following describes the 10 elements of effective classification and assessment. They are. 1). Purposeful. For the most part, the reason for classification and assessment is to guarantee that the offenders are dealt differently inside the system wind in order to provide security, sufficient treatment, and comprehension.