the rules of the reward 'game ' Trust in the people who will take the decisions on who gets what outcome Transparency of the process that decides who gets what outcome Valence is the importance that the individual places upon the expected outcome. For the valence to be positive, the person must prefer attaining the outcome to not attaining it. For example, if someone is mainly motivated by money, he or she might not value offers of additional time off. The three elements are important behind choosing one element over another because they are clearly defined: effort-performance expectancy (E>P expectancy) and performance-outcome expectancy (P>O expectancy). E>P expectancy: our assessment of the probability that our efforts will lead to the required performance level.
This would make the beliefs and behaviors consistant with one another and avoid dissonance. The main point of cognitive dissonance is that people want consistency in their attitudes and beliefs and if their beliefs are inconsistent with their behaviors they will have a motivation to reduce the dissonance change which can give them the cause to change behaviors. This change can sometimes be illogical and absurd but it helps them to reduce the conflicting attributes.
These aspects are taken into consideration when trying to interpret another person’s facial expression. It mentions that facial expression is not always intentional and can be a good gage for observing what someone is really feeling. Many aspects of nonverbal communication are unconscious making it an interesting yet difficult area of study. (Bull, 2001) Facial expression is a clear indicator of a person’s true emotions, it can be categorized into two subgroups; spontaneous and voluntary. (Bull,2011) When assessing another person’s facial expression, it is important to keep different cultural norms in mind.
This is because most of the behaviors tend to occur mostly in situations where it is reinforced and less where it is punished. Some of the questions asked while undertaking antecedents on a problem behavior are related to factors such as who, what and where the problem behavior occurs usually and the activities preceding the problem occurrence among others. There are various ways related to the manipulation of antecedents for the purposes of increasing the desired behavior including presenting desired behavior cues in the individual 's environment, arranging the environment in such a way that it would prove valuable when the individual engages in the desired behavior and decreasing the needed
Certain behaviour is considered more correct to the degree that other people are doing it. Social proof is a shortcut because it involves following social cues from others rather than processing and analyzing the situation and trying to decide on a course of action. Social proof is caused by and works better under the condition of uncertainty. Furthermore, similarity is another key element because we tend to follow the behaviour of those similar to us. Social proof can be used ethically if it is used to set positive examples or to influence others to behave ethically.
Rationale of MET: Objective: The objective of the Motivational Enhancement Therapy is to modify the harmful use of drugs. Goal: Each client needs to set their own goal rather than getting imposed by an absolute goal through MET. Mechanism of MET: MET is based on cognitive and social psychology principles. The therapist needs to develop an inconsistency in the client’s perceptions between their at present status and their planned goals. Here, the commitment and desire to get change should come from client within self.
The second stage is instrumental obedience. This is when people are nice to someone else while having the expectation that they will receive the same favor. The next level is conventional. The third stage of conventional is interpersonal norms. This is when adolescents and adults act according to other people’s expectation.
With this model, the researchers are able to determine where to either of the two routes the viewers’ responses on the “Finally Ariel” jingle have proceeded. Figure 3-1. Elaboration Likelihood Model II. Hierarchy of Effects The Hierarchy of effects (model) or HOE by Robert Lavidge and Gary Steiner (1961) is a marketing communication model. It suggests there are six (6) stages that happen to the viewers when they receive the message: awareness, knowledge, liking, preference, conviction and purchase.
Although many principles are related to changing behavior, there are two basic premises for a reinforcement to be effective. Those premises are either positive (being rewarded) or negative (being punished) consequences. If the result is a good consequence such as being rewarded, people are most likely to repeat the behavior. Whereas, on a negative consequence, such as being punished, the behavior will tend to avoid it. Three directions of reinforcement can be seen here.
Self-awareness involves staying at the top of one’s typical reactions to specific events, challenges, tasks and people. When one understands tendencies then it helps to quickly make sense of one’s emotions. An effective way of genuinely understanding one’s emotions is to spend ample time analyzing where those emotions come from and why they exist. Emotions usually come from somewhere. However, some come out of nowhere and it is important to understand why something triggers a reaction.