What is sexual identity? Sexual identity refers to how one thinks of oneself and what one is romantically or sexually attracted to. It is a primarily component of how one reflects their sexual self-concept. Besides, sexual identity could be changed throughout a lifetime due to sexual orientation but it may be not align with each other (Rosario, Schrimshaw, Hunter, & Braun, 2006) as WebMD indicates that bisexual may not express their true feelings and decide to have relationship with one gender. Still, most people define their sexual identity based on their sexual orientation (Grollman, 2010).
Judith Butler’s Gender Trouble (1990) and Bodies that Matter (1993) works are fundamental texts of study for this thesis. Both works are deeply influenced specially by French structuralism and post-structuralism schools of thought. In Gender Trouble, Butler deconstructs the established, normative, Western construction of the Gay/Straight and hetero/homosexual binaries to discuss the lack of perspective regarding the heterogeneity of sexual identity and diversity as it is present in twentieth century society. Her arguments focus not only on the production of binaries and their rigidity from a sociological standpoint, but also on how the use of these binary structures can affect us in processes of sexual identity construction because of interpretations and constraints coming from various fields such as: the
Butterfly, on the other hand, uses gender and racialization in a combative way. When reading Song as male (problematic and will be refuted later), Hwang counters Madame Butterfly’s submissive and feminine stereotype of the East. The final scene is a reversal of this notion, in which the West is killing herself for the male East. However, reading Song as a man and Gallimard as gay deprives Song of her femininity. Though Hwang refers to Song with he/him pronouns in the afterword, modern lenses of gender and sexuality can be used to describe Song as transgender or genderqueer.
According to Joan Scott, one of the main and first theorists of gender studies: "In grammar, gender is understood to be a way of classifying phenomena, a socially agreed upon system of distinctions rather than an objective description of inherent traits. In addition, classifications suggest a relationship among categories that makes distinctions or separate groupings possible". Nonetheless, it seems that even though feminism derives or contributed to the birth of gender studies and inscribed its movement as a military approach, other movements linked to oppression such as the homosexuals and transsexuals can also be considered as gender studies without necessarily being in accordance to the domination of a biological sex on another. It seems that there is a deviation from gender to sexuality and not only biology differentiations. For example, one can argue
Homosexuality is defined as ‘having emotional, romantic, or sexual attractions to members of one’s own sex’ (American Psychological Association, n.d.). LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender) movements have been increasingly influential all over the world and homosexuality has been under heated debate. In his article ‘Why Homosexuality is Abnormal’, Michael Levin puts forward a number of arguments to support his contention, as well as provides counterarguments to potential criticisms. Finally he expresses his opinion on legislation on homosexuality based on his stance. In the following paragraphs, I shall analyse his main contention and arguments, discuss the implications on the situation of Hong Kong and comment on his arguments.
"Queer," as described in the video originated from the word "twerh” to mean oblique-the word having been rooted from terkw which in German means "to twist, turn, wind." Queer scholars and activists having identified the term as demeaning came to reclaim its meaning to that which did not lean towards the identity of gay. The term "queer" is a multi-faceted word can be used both positively and negatively by different people. Some people may refer to this term as something strange, derogatory or even an identity to people whose gender or sex is non-conforming. However, many people now view this term positively to mean all-inclusive, an umbrella term, or an academic term applied in the context of queer theory and queer studies.
Whereas felt stigma derives from the knowledge that homosexuality is stigmatized, irrespective of whether or not an individual endorses it, internalized stigma is an individual’s tacit acceptance of sexual stigma as part of his or her own value system. Internalized stigma is exhibited by both sexual minorities and homosexuals. Under internalized stigma, the person’s self concept is consistent with the stigmatizing responses of society. The person accepts society’s negative association with homosexuality and consequently harbours negative attitudes towards the self and towards his or her own homosexual desires.
In "Are We Having Sex Now or What?" by Greta Christina, she addresses many different definitions and criteria for what she thinks sex is or should be labeled as. She starts by thinking about and conceptualizing what sex actually is. She goes and performs her own tests on what sex is like for her with many different people. Originally, she only accounts for the binary and traditional sex which is between a man and a woman.
The films that I have chosen to focus on and compare, highlight the way homosexuality has been represented in films throughout the years and how it has been shaped as society changes what is viewed as being normal and socially acceptable. My aim is also to highlight the things that have remained the same about how homosexuality is represented even in the society we live in today. This is why I have chosen films that have been made during different times in order to compare them and come to an accurate conclusion as to whether the representation has changed. Next Slide: Representation in Films Presenter: “Sexual desire on TV is represented as being predominantly heterosexual; that is presented as the norm” (Joyce, 2009) (Item 15) says Andrea
Initially serving as the slogan of feminist movement, the statement, the personal is political, was later adopted to describe queerness as well, and gradually loses its edginess, receiving challenges and condemnation of “dehumanis[ing] the sense of humanity” (Manning 4), and the dangerous tendency of reducing individual particularities into a homogeneous group, which encourages the personal to depoliticise the queerness so that individual particularities can be given back to the discourse. However, in some particular moments, the statement still functions as a powerful weapon against heteronormativity, connecting the personal closely with the political. Taking Stanley Kwan’s documentary, Yang ± Yin: Gender in Chinese Cinema (1996) as an example,