Theories Of Reintegrative Shaming

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In the theory of reintegrative shaming, Brathwaite (1989) explained why some societies have higher crime rate than others, why certain people or certain groups of people are more likely to commit a crime, and how the community can effectively deal with the crime in order to prevent future crimes. Brathwaite theory of reintegrative shaming is heavily influence by the work of early theoretical theories including labelling, subcultural, control, opportunity, and learning theories (Braithwaite, 1989). Brathwaite (1989) supported control theory argument that individual are naturally drawn to commit criminal acts for the purpose of personal gain. Brathwaite argued that individuals who are integrated into the community and are involved in a committed relationship are less likely to commit a crime. In contrast, individuals who are not integrated into the community or proactively involved with others are more likely to commit a crime because they do not feel a sense of responsibility to those around them, and they are not constrained by feelings of shame. According to Brathwaite (1989), shame is the ultimate deterrent against the violation of societal norms and in order to reintegrate, offenders needs to be able to view their act outside of their own perspective to see the harm that it has caused. The media without doubt plays a major role in shaping, framing, criminalising, and victimising individuals or individual groups. According to Davies, Francis, &
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