Theories Of Schema Theory

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LEARNING THEORIES 2.9.1 Schema Theory Schema theory introduced by Frederic Charles Bartlett later developed by educational psychologist Anderson (2008) stated that comprehending a text requires activating an existing schema or creating a new schema that organizes the information. Schema theory proposes that people translate information about a situation based on their prior knowledge. A learners background knowledge is referred to as schema in reading literature, which includes all experiences that a reader relates to a text: life experiences, educational experiences, knowledge of how text can be organized rhetorically, knowledge of how first and second language works, knowledge on cultural background. Schema theory assumes that written text…show more content…
To understand a text a reader should not only possess linguistic knowledge but also general knowledge of the world and the knowledge activated during reading. Therefore, students’ background knowledge should be activated before reading the text. Understanding the text depends on the schema of the reader while reading. According to An (2013), schema theory guides readers as they make sense of new experiences, enable them to make a prediction about what they might expect to experience in a given context. Reading comprehension schema is often used to assist second language learning. According to Anderson (2008), a reader comprehends a message by activating schema that gives a good account of the objects and events described in the message. It requires reading numerous texts in the particular language. If we fail to create schema while reading the text it will ultimately hamper comprehension…show more content…
Instruction should be based upon the laws of organization: proximity, closure, similarity, and simplicity. (Kearsley, 2003, p.25) Gestalt theory is interrelated with directed reading thinking activity as students construct knowledge based on prior knowledge. It depends on learner’s past and current experiences and perceptions to acquire new information. This particular study on using DRTA is based on the above learning theories. Learning through DRTA strategy is based on the schema and cognitive theory because our previous knowledge is important to comprehend the text. A teacher should activate schema of the students while facilitating the reading activity so that the knowledge is retained for longer period of time. Moreover, a teacher should provide an opportunity for students to explore and experience so that students are motivated and their schemata are activated. Student activities should be based on student-centered approach in order to engage all the students actively in the classroom. When students interact with their friends while reading, it helps in their cognitive development which ultimately leads to learning. Moreover, teachers need to know the cognitive ability of students so they can introduce cognitive conflict at a reasonable level, where students can resolve it through assimilation and

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