The primary notions for understanding behavior are rooted in a person’s cognition, affect, and motivation. Theory also suggests that a person’s cognitive abilities (that guides behavior) can enable them to reflect on their thought, feelings, and motivation in response to the influences of the social environment (HBSE lecture). Because social environments do determine behavior, through examples of triadic reciprocal causations theory describe how the imitation of observed behaviors is influenced by the environment, person, and behavior. According to Bandura, each of these factors are causes of one another and must be understood as a system of influencing forces (Pervin, Cerrone & John,
The attention of students can be increased by using models that are viewed as competent, prestigious and similar to themselves. Through purposeful use of rewards and punishments, the motivational aspects of observational learning may be supported. These consequences, further, should shape the behavior of students when they are provided either to the learner or to a model. What basic assumptions/principles of this theory are relevant to instructional design? Specific assumptions or principles that have direct relevance to instructional design include the following: • The highest level of observational learning is achieved by first organizing and rehearsing the modeled behavior symbolically and then enacting it overtly.
A learner capability of problem-solving and understanding situation will be upgraded above their actual development because constructivist believes the cognitive structures that still in the process of maturing will mature after compromising with the guidance or with the participation with others. Social constructivism also believe motivation are from both intrinsic and extrinsic. Learner is motivated by their internal drive to learn and also as a reward for having the knowledge. Advantages of social constructivism theory towards learning are the learning process itself is transferable, where the learners build knowledge and able to bring the knowledge to other teaching sessions. Learner will have the ownership their learning in view of is
First, the 'acquisition-learning hypothesis ', in the learning, learners focus on rules and forms of the language, and in the acquisition, learners focus on communicating messages and meanings. Secondly, the 'monitor hypothesis ' which says what have been learned could use it to edit the speech and give a perfect massage. Thirdly, the 'natural order hypothesis ' assumes that the second language learners begin with known steps as the steps in learning the first language. Fourthly, the 'comprehensible input hypothesis ' it reflects the Krashen 's view that second language learning occurs as a result of exposure to varied linguistic input. Finally, the 'affective filter hypothesis ' it suggests, some variables, such as motivation, Receptivity, and self-confidence, which impact on second language learners ' success or failure.
No doubt that motivation is crucial for students' learning. Thus, studying the three main theories that have been reviewed; namely the self-determination theory, goal theories and attribution theory would be most benefited for learners. - Anjomshoa and Sadighi 2015, carried out a study entitled: "The Importance of Motivation in Second Language Acquisition." Rost 2006 has stated that motivation has been called the “neglected heart” of language teaching. Sometimes teachers forget that all of the activities employed in learning is related tightly to motivation.
The reason lies with how Lynn’s theory veers towards that of cognitivism, and learning is measurable in small units and achievements. Darseni’s veers towards that of constructivism. While there aren’t any distinguished structure defined in Darseni’s theory, prior experiences are regarded as key construct, because learning is viewed in a much larger spectrum – where learning is the cumulative development of the entire learner who moves from the disposition of one who requires guidance to the one who is
In addition, Lev Vygotsky Socio-Cultural Theory states that students’ learning could be more effective if it is provided with support or scaffold. Information processing theory supplies the scaffold theory which is also a cognitive theoretical framework that focuses on how knowledge enters and is stored and retrieved from our memory. Cognitive psychologist believed that processes influence the nature of what is learned. They considered learning as largely an internal process, not an external behavior change. They looked into how learners receive, perceive, store and retrieve
lack of ability) for previous unsuccessful computer performance result in a negative effect on one’s self-efficacy . Figure 1 illustrates the relationships between computer-related causal attributions, self-efficacy, and computer security behavior. In this study, we explore the plausibility of using the attribution theory to explain a user’s computer security
Diving a bit deeper on that, beliefs are learnt in a national culture and they may be unconscious. Sometimes, you may not be aware of your own values and beliefs until you are confronted with someone different than you, for example when you work with a colleague from another country and regard the meeting as quite a challenge because the person was different from you. Cultural Beliefs vary enormously, mainly across the religions and cultures of people. And, most of the times we tend to judge other’s behaviour based on our own cultural beliefs, which dims our minds receptiveness to new perspectives and possibilities and allowing lots of opportunities for potential conflict, misunderstandings and miscommunication between many people. Furthermore, distinct cultural beliefs of people also lead to different behaviour among people, behaviour that is different from their normal behaviour.
According to Dörnyei (1999), the development of motivational psychology originates from numerous studies conducted in socio-cultural context rather than from individual. Since the emergence of sociocultural theory propounded by Vygotsky, findings on the effect of Socio-cultural factors such as age, gender, culture amongst other on students’ motivation have been widely reported in the field of second language learning research (Donato, R. 1994; Lantolf, J. P., & Pavlenko, A. 1995). Considering the fact that socio-cultural factors of language learning are set of variable factors capable of influencing student language learning process and ability, hence, languages in every speech community are held in either high or low prestige because of economic, political or cultural values associated with them (Stern, 1983:273 ). Therefore, learners are compel to enter into L2 learning process with positive or negative attitude derived from the society which in turn affect their motivation to learn the target language (Chambers, 1999:44).The discourse of the effect of socio-cultural factor on English language learning has also generated so much attention India because of the prestigious and official status English holds in the country(Agarwal & Thakur,2014,Sridha,1996 ).This is the main reason English language has been made a compulsory subject offered at