Thinking instructional design as a concept of system or ‘a set of interrelated and interacting parts that work together toward some common goal’ (Smith & Ragan, 2005, p. 24) Instructional designer should be aware of other system discipline. Learning theory This theory informs a ‘change in human disposition or capability that persists over a period of time and is not simply ascribable to processes of growth’ (Gagne, 1985, p. 2) It helps instructional designers when designing from a: • Behaviourist and/or cognitivist stance, the designer analyses the situation and sets a goal. • Constructivist approach requires that the designer produces a product that is much more facilitative in nature than
First, one is required to pay attention to the information that the person wants to recall; this process is also well-known as perception. Second, the person must be in a conscious state to receive an information. Furthermore, the first process occurs in a person’s brain by giving the meaning towards the information received by the sensory memory. The perception accepted is based on the prior knowledge regarding a particular information (Woolfolk, 2007:251). During learning, Gagne (as cited in Smith, 2009: 125 ) argues that giving attention is to be conducted firstly.
Models are an important source for an individual to learn new things and behaviors. He also stated that in social learning theory, there are 3 systems that affect and control behavior. First, antecedent inducements will influence the time and response of a behavior greatly. Next, response feedback influences will also impact the occurrence of such behavior in the future. Lastly, it stressed that cognitive functions are important as well.
Output are the behaviors of the person, acts as both external and internal, these behaviors can be measured, observed, or subjectively reported. Output behaviour becomes feedback to the system and may be either adaptive or ineffective responses. In addition, these responses may promote the
Social Cognitive Theory and Self-efficacy Social cognitive theory studies the human capacity to “ exercise control over the nature and quality of one’s quality life” Bandura (2001), as quoted by Swackhamer (2009). This human agency or exercise of control allows individuals to make things happen through intentional actions. As Bandura (2001)described human agency as being guided through four cognitive channels: self-regulation, self-reflectiveness, intentionality, and forethought. Self-regulation is the ability of a person to observe the preferred choice of action through goal setting and motivation. On the other hand, self-reflection refers to the evaluation of the person’s motivation, values, and the importance of the chosen action.
Effects of Other Individuals Social learning theory is different to Skinner’s Learning Theory. It highlights the importance of cognition. This means we don’t just accidentally learn something, we use our mental processes to choose what we want to learn and what we need to learn. Social learning theory suggests that we learn through a series of modelling, reinforcement and observation of others. Modelling is when you observe the behaviour of other people and then imitate it even if the behaviour is not rewarded.
Neural pathways are at play as we engage with life, experiencing it. Notably, brain power energises and maintains our engagement through what educators see as motivation and knowledge of what to do. In turn, it is developed by the same engagement in which new ways of thinking are needed. This happens if we are to extend lists of what we already know about something or other – or descriptions and explanations of them, or to find and fit clever solution to a presenting problem, or to imagine what problems our presenting information might address. It happens also where our learning experience raises issues of causation by drawing evidence together or considering what effects or consequences follow from what we have just learned, or, when we are using our brains (Blakemore & Frith, 2005).
The capacity of each student depends on whether they have a growth mindset or a fixed mindset. Mapuan students who have a growth mindset believe that they can still develop their intelligence and abilities. They are the ones who try harder despite all the difficulties which arise and may arise. Students who have a fixed mindset remain fundamentally unchanging which is why whenever they encounter challenges they become more dispirited compared to someone with a steady
These organizations ought to get the Students to perceive, verbalizes and break down their own issue and distinguish causes and arrangements. Understudies ought to oversee time deliberately as time administration can represent the moment of truth understudies' endeavors to succeed in school courses. Some of the time this is on the grounds that an understudy is deficient with regards to inspiration, is apathetic, ill-equipped, undisciplined, has a poor state of mind, and maybe is not extremely keen. Legit self examination is basic to accomplishment for the savvy, for every one of us commit errors, yet it is the insightful on the off chance that they are fruitful in acclimatize to keep the future disappointment. The individuals who do care look for help and make inquiries when required.
Whereas in contrast, according to Meyer and Gagner (2008), extrinsic motivation of the self-determination theory refers to engaging in an activity for instrumental reasons , thus extrinsic motivators are viewed to be made up of two cornerstones namely external regulations which are seen to be actions that are performed with the expectation of receiving a reward or avoiding punishment , the second cornerstone is integration which is defined as form of expressing one’s state (as cited in Buitendach , 2011, p.4). The main hypothesis behind this theory is that people have three basic psychological needs which the organisation must help to fulfil. These three