Theories Of Social Interdependence

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Basically, the theory of social independence emphasizes on the interaction amongst group members that determines the outcome of a situation, and this interaction is dependent on structure of the group’ goals (Deutsch, 1949 as cited in Johnson & Johnson, 2003). Social interactions influence the final outcomes of the group tasks. Social independence occurs when the group members share the goals with action of each individual affecting the individual’s outcomes (Johnson, Johnson, & Roger, 2006). External validity and generalizability of research were established based on social interdependence in an extent to which very rare for social sciences (Johnson & Johnson, 2003). Social interdependence has been categorized into three types: positive…show more content…
All group member’s goals are interlinked and each one can achieve his/ her goal only if others members individually achieve their goals. Hence there has to be a positive correlation of each individual’s goals which is facilitated by cooperative learning by getting them to work together towards shared learning goals. Each individual’s efforts must benefit all individuals cooperatively linked. This is a win-win situation for all 2. Negative correlation among individuals ' goal attainments is termed negative interdependence. Every member works independence, every member works independently against each other, and the learning activities are structured competitively. The goal can only be attained by one or a few students. Students perceive that failure of others contributes in part at least to their success. Therefore, each student works to reach an outcome that benefit him or her individually, but negatively engaged in the task - a win-lose situation. 3. No correlation amongst group member goals is termed no interdependence. The situation is structured individualistically; individuals independently achieve their goals. Thus, individuals are not concerned about the others; they work to accomplish personally beneficial…show more content…
An individual models his or her own behavior on the behaviors of others. This is based on observational learning that requires attention, retention, production, and motivation. Attention is to selectively observe the actions of a model. Attention is influenced by characteristics of the modeled behavior (e.g., complexity), the model (e.g., attractiveness similarity), and the observer (e.g., cognitive capabilities). Retention then stores observed behaviors in memory, to reproduce later. Retention is a process of symbolic coding, cognitive organization, rehearsal, and cognitive skills. Production then translates the symbolic representation of the observed behavior into action. Production is influenced by representational guidance (e.g., response production, guided enactment), corrective adjustment (e.g., monitoring of enactments, feedback), and the observer’s capabilities and related sub skills. Finally, motivation determines whether to enact the behavior. Thus is based on reinforcement that comes from feedback generated by one’s behavior, the observed feedback given to others, or internal incentives. Reinforcement is also positive or negative (called valence). Outcome expectancies - a key aspect of social cognitive theory – also play a major part in reinforcement. Outcome expectancies - the judgments of the consequences associated with a behavior - may be physical, social, or self-evaluative
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