fighting & problem solving methodologies), but also shows the correlation between deviance and delinquent behavior and the devaluing of positive social norms (i.e. school). This type of value system can be attributed to learned behaviors and influential
Introduction The topic of this report is gangs, why people join them and the impacts. A gang can be described as an organized group of criminals, social scientists use the terminology most often when describing a group of juveniles. People who have previously been involved in criminal acts, and youth looking for protection or a sense of belonging are highly attracted to the idea of gangs. The reason for joining a gang varies depending on the person and where they live but all have common themes such as acceptance, new experiences and protection. After joining a gang the participates become involved in a great deal of criminal acts.
The social process theory of crime is an essential tool for criminologists and other justice related professionals. The social process theory contains three other sub theories, social learning, social reaction, and social control. The social process theory and sub theories interpret criminal behavior as a purpose of people’s interactions with establishments, organizations, and processes within the society (Siegel, 222). Domestic violence in this sense will focus around the social control sub theory, but any of the sub theories within the social process theory could apply. To use the social leaning theory a criminologist or specialist in the field must take account of the felon’s relationships and environment (Siegel, 228).
The first step of the criminal justice system is the execution of a crime. A lot of variation can happen here, because some victims of crime do not report the crime immediately, or they do not realize they are a victim of crime until later. Also, some crimes may not have witnesses, which can lead to a crime not being reported as well. This is a great example to show why the discretionary model is so useful in the criminal justice system, because with so much variation in crime there needs to be a foundation laid down to guide the case in the right path. After the committing of a crime the law starts to get involved.
The differential association theory explains that so-called criminals learn the skills and attitudes necessary for their "job" of others who have already mastered them. According to this theory, the groups teach techniques, motivations, attitudes and rationalisations, like "definitions" that may or may not be favourable to the violation of law (Wright, Millar, 2006). "The theory of differential association therefore says that a person becomes delinquent when definitions favourable to violation of law prevail over the worst." Explains Massimo Pavarini (2003, page 120 and 121) in his book Control and Domination . Joining this thought to Merton; Can it be inferred that if the illegal conditions are more favourable than the legal order to achieve the social, the individual will be using illegal?
Robert Agnew established a crime causation principle around two major concepts. Both ideas results are directly related to crime and show the relationship between the constraints of crime and the motivation for the crime. The model reflected when the restrictions against crime are small, and the incentives for crime are high, crime will exist. Constraints in the form of sanctions and lack of internal control can progress criminality. The motivations, incentives, stimulants represent the rewards that are elevated through crime.
Zastrow and Kirst-Ashman (2013) describe a perspective of Social learning theory in that previous theorists were interested in the behavioral component of morality. This particular element argues that we as individuals gradually learn to behave morally from an early age. As children grow they will be faced with situations that require them to access prior experiences that lay a foundation of expectations and standards of conduct (Zastrow et al.’s 2013). From an early age children view their parents as role models for doing what is right versus what is wrong (Zastrow et al.’s 2013). Sharaf, Thompson and Walsh (2009) provide an interesting example of this regarding suicide risk behaviors for at risk adolescents in that their findings confirm
One way to try and understand why this whole family is involved in crime, is to apply ideas from learning theories, such as Sutherland’s Differential Association theory, where it is thought that criminal behaviour is learned through social interactions (Lilly, Ball & Cullen, 2015, p .44). Differential Association theory is a social-psychology theory that