Goffman does not deny what traditional symbolic interactionists argue. Instead he is more interested in how the presence of other individuals, social arrangements, social order, social hierarchy and the interaction order shape the image of ones ‘self’. Goffman studied & explored the nature of ones self and its relation to the broader moral codes & social attidudes that shape agents interaction
Wallace argues that actual thinking and education involves gaining a conscious awareness, often that those around us are in reality just as important as we are. So while people are more likely to attribute behavior to another’s personality, especially if it’s negative, this is far from accurate. This is a big piece to Gilbert’s model if people do not use controlled think or thinking that is effortful, conscious, and intentional (textbook, p.65) to see someone’s situational attribution they are misinterpreting information. This occurs automatically and even involuntary, which is why Wallace referred to it as a default setting. However, even if initially people are making attributions to someone’s internal state, they can change this way of thinking and recognize outside situations.
An individual models his or her own behavior on the behaviors of others. This is based on observational learning that requires attention, retention, production, and motivation. Attention is to selectively observe the actions of a model. Attention is influenced by characteristics of the modeled behavior (e.g., complexity), the model (e.g., attractiveness similarity), and the observer (e.g., cognitive capabilities). Retention then stores observed behaviors in memory, to reproduce later.
Kurt Lewin’s major contribution lies in the field of Group Dynamics, Field Theory and Action Research. He modelled the social change process in organisational, particularly, industrial setups. 1. Group Dynamics: - Lewin’s definition of a group is widely accepted. Here the basic line of argument is that groups come into being in a psychological sense ‘not because their members necessarily are similar to one another (although they may be); rather, a group exists when people in it realize their fate depends on the fate of the group as a whole’ (Brown 1988: 28).
Social Cognitive Theory proposes that individuals do not simply respond to environmental influences, but rather they actively seek and interpret information (Nevid, 2009). Individuals “function as contributors to their own motivation, behavior, and development within a network of reciprocally interacting influences” (Bandura, 1999, p. 169). Although Social Cognitive Theory covers many topics such as moral judgment and physiological arousal, research has been primarily focused on self-efficacy, or the beliefs regarding one 's capabilities of successfully completing tasks or goals (Locke & Latham, 2002). According to Bandura (2005), social cognitive theory takes on an agent-like perspective to change, development and adaptation. Bandura describes an agent as someone who intentionally influences one’s functioning and life circumstances; “In this view, people are self-organizing, proactive, self-regulating, and self-reflecting.
The self perception theory consists of two basic claims. The first claim is that people develop their own attitudes, beliefs, and other internal states by observing their own behaviour. (Tuntufye., 1993: 268). Additionally, the self perception theory is one of the most important theories that help me as an individual to develop self knowledge because it explains how people get to know themselves under a wide range of conditions. The people around me are the people around me have no impact on myself perception because this happens inside me by observing my own
So long as activities are purposeful, they work. Like the conundrum of being “too friendly”, focusing on that allows me to be more authentic and less self-censoring, since I spent less time worrying about crossing ethical bounds; time better spent being with the youths. Programs and plans change in the moment, rendering planning obsolete unless it caters for change. Therefore, protocol should guide more than command, and adopting this perspective would aid me greatly. Not just in youth work, but for direct practice in
Basically, Grant puts it that in face of problems leaders will make a decision based on the challenge they are facing. He further asserts that situations are tame, wicked or critical and depending on the situation the social constructivist approach is enhanced. The main reason behind this is that the three situations can be linked to different forms of resource which are calculative, ideological and coercive (Grant 2005). Unlike many other researchers Grant handles a unique area where he analysis language and leadership. His, concept takes into consideration that at times the nature of certain situations determines how problems are solved.
Social Learning Theory Social learning theory differs from Skinner’s learning theory as it recognises the importance of cognition as Albert Bandura believed that we aren’t ‘passive’ learners or accidental learners, we use mental processes to select what we imitate and watch. Social learning theory proposes that we learn through different types of ways which allow us to learn how to behave, the proposals are that we learn through observation as we observe the people around us when they behave in various ways, we learn through modelling or imitation as we think about the relationship between other people’s behaviour and the consequence that it brings, and we also learn through both direct and indirect reinforcement. Effects of other individuals
This type of response is more likely to happen. If you want the right thing to happen, reward it with positive measures. Repetition with positive rewards always makes out to be a better influence for a child’s upbringing and how they react to the set goal. I would like to say that Operant Conditioning is a better form of learning because it is strengthened by positive consequences or weakened by a negative consequence. You reward to improve behavior, or you take away or time-out to give them time to think about what they did wrong.