(Simon, p.3) First of all, it is pivotal to distinguish how Marx and Weber defined “modern societies.” Marx elucidated class conflict as the stimulus for change and it was prevalent throughout the transition of production. “Every
Through identifying, defining, and understanding the key concepts of Marxism, the preconditions and contradictions of a capitalist society become more prominent. The contradictions of a capitalist society will be introduced through identifying and defining; radical change by societal transformation exploitation, conflict between different social groups (the bourgeoisie and proletariat), and exploitation. The two contradictions “exploitation” and “conflict between social groups” can be explained complimentary to one another as a result of being closely related. Key concepts such as; historical materialism, means of production, class consciousness, superstructure, and alienation will be referred to in order to aid the further understanding of Marxism, which in turn will address the preconditions of a capitalist society. The preconditions of capitalism can be understood as the requirements for Marxism - what formulates the views of Marxism – due to Marx working hard to create a theory for the capitalist economy.
Many other scholars have agreed or attempted to demystify each individual theory. This essay shall confer as to each separate theory of the state as a relation. It shall furthermore discuss the limitations of each theory, while examining contributions from other theorists and scholars in the field of anthropology and sociology. According to Marx, societies consist of two structures: super and infra. The latter consists of the base structures needed for the said societies production and operation; structures such as transport, energy and healthcare are part of the infrastructure.
Conflict theories, such as Marxism and feminism focus on power struggles and differences, for example, class conflict, and for the most part question historical ideologies. It is a macro level critique and study of society (Collins, 1971). Many sociologists and thinkers have defined the class in different ways. Marx defined class in terms of the political and economic structures of power, he believed that power came directly from economic and political conditions and the people with power usually exploit the ones without power. He divided society into three classes the bourgeoisie, the petty bourgeoisie and the proletariat (Grant, 2001).
In this essay I will discuss the views of Conflict Theorists on education and the implications it does when dealing with curriculum and learners. Marx argued the bourgeoisie (ruling-class) used the capitalist economic system to extract surplus value from the proletariat (working-class). Marxism is seen as a conflict approach because of the class conflict the above system creates between the two social-classes (the opposite of the consensual approach Durkheim, Parsons Etc. argue). Contemporary Marxists argue globalisation has created a global bourgeoisie based on the evidence of a global 1% of ruling-class owning the means of production.
It is clear that Fitzgerald has a Marxist message in the way he develops his characters in his novel. In the Great Gatsby, Fitzgerald demonstrates the concept of Marxist critique through social-economic relationships and conflicts that it can create. For instance,
As stated by Rummel (1977), Marx observed the society to its main classes, and the struggle amid them as the engine of modification. The arrangement itself was a derivative and ingredient in the conflicts between social classes. As Marx saw the change in class conflict, the brawl between classes were initially narrowed to individual factories. Eventually, the development of capitalism, the rising difference between life conditions of bourgeoisie and proletariat and the aggregate homogenization within each class, individual struggles become generalized to coalitions across factories. Thus, the class struggle is distorted into a working-class revolution.
Karl Marx (1852), a German social thinker, propounded a theory of class that is accepted by many educators and social scientists and these scholars are usually grouped together and labeled as Marxists. They have there often some disagreement among them as to Marx's definition of class because they think that there is an ambiguity in Marx's ideology towards social class. “According to them there are two modes of class exist in the society in a Marxian position. The first view is related to the objective classification of an aggregate of people with reference to their similar relation to the means of production. The second view of Marxian class is related to struggle in the society, which gives rise to a subjective but essential element in the concept of class.
Conflict perspective is when different people view an "absolute fact" about their society in a different way or with a different interpretation. The theory sees society as a dynamic entity continually undergoing changes as a result of competition for scarce resources. Conflict perspective surmises that our social life is shaped by groups and people who struggle or fight against one another over different valuable supplies and rewards, leading to particular distributions of power, riches and fame in social systems. It started with Karl Marx, the father of social conflict theory, and has since developed into a number of lines. These views generally detracted from other perspectives of Sociology like structural functionalism and ideological conservatism.
Marxism, as a political ideology, originated from Karl Marx (1818-1883) and his friend Friedrich Engels (1820-1895). Marxism seeks to understand the problems of mankind and society through historical analysis and treats history as a process of conflict between antagonistic forces and classes. The conflict is a product of the contradictions inherent in the mode of production in which the class that “has” dominates the class that does “not