Theory And Bureaucratic Theory

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BINDURA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE EDUCATION
FACULTY OF COMMERCE

NAME: ALI RASHEED MWENYANI
REGISTRATION NUMBER B1645826
DEGREE PROGRAMME: B.Com BANKING AND FINANCE
COURSE: MANAGEMENT 1
COURSE CODE: BS236
ASSINGMENT: 1
LECTURER: MRS ZEMBERE
DUE: 13 SEPTEMBER 2017
QUESTION:
Discuss why classical organizational theories are often referred to as machine theories?

Basically, the classical theory is the traditional theory, wherein more emphasis is on the organization rather than the employees working therein. According to the classical theory, the organization is considered as a machine and the human beings as different components of that machine. The classical organizational theories are distributed into
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Bureaucracy is defined as a model of organisation design based on a legitimate and formal system of authority. Max Weber believed that bureaucracy structure of management is the most rational and logical form of management which would make an organisation highly efficient and successful. Some of the major characteristics of the bureaucracy model as stated by Max Weber are techinal expertise, division of labour, rules policies and procedures, impersonal contribution, and strict chain of command. The first principle of the bureaucracy theory is formal hierarchy structure and the concept of this principle is that there should be centralization of power in terms of planning and decision making in an organisation. There must be a well-defined hierachy of authority with clear lines of authority and control concentrated at the top and this process will help the organisation to proceed in a single…show more content…
Taylor’s scientific management put unnecessary pressures on the employees to perform the work faster. Importance was given to productivity and profitability and this resulted in exploitation of employees. Therefore, many employees joined trade unions and this resulted in mistrust between management and employees. The scientific management theory is also criticized for its mechanical approach. Taylor’s approach was a mechanical approach. He gave too much importance to efficiency. He did not consider the human element and Taylor considered workers as robots, which could speed up the work at any cost. Another criticism is loss of initiative and this means that the initiative of workers is adversely affected on account of separation of thinking from doing. The work methods are standardized and the worker has to act in accordance with the instruction of the foreman. He cannot take initiative and suggest better method of work. Lastly, this theory is criticized because it reduces the worker to a machine. Scientific management reduces the worker to the status of the machine by separating the function of thinking from him. The thinking or the planning aspect is taken over by the management. The methods of work are standardized and the worker has to repeat the same performance time and again, but this leads to monotony and kills worker’s initiative and
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