Their definition of cohesion emphasizes the relationship between the meanings of linguistic units. It is basically the glue that holds a text together and makes the difference between unrelated set of sentences and a set of sentences forming a unified whole. Cohesion is a semantic one which is released through grammar and vocabulary to refer to relations of meaning that exists in the text. We can consider the grammatical and lexical elements cohesive when they interpreted in relation with other elements in the text (Tanskanen, 2006, chapter2). Halliday and Hasan also define a concrete form as a tie; we need a term to refer to a single instance of cohesion, a term for one occurrence of a pair of cohesively related items.
Moreover, cohesion is "the way certain words or grammatical features of a sentence can connect that sentence to its predecessors and successors in a text. "(Hoey, 1996, p.3). So, cohesive ties are important in organizing, structuring and understanding media discourse. Therefore, this study covers the theory of cohesion which founded by Halliday and Hasan in the written media discourse. Furthermore, there are two kinds of cohesive devices: lexical cohesive devices deal with aspects of vocabulary which link parts of the text together and grammatical cohesive devices focus on the role of grammar in holding texts together.
Rajatanun(1988) stated that a paragraph is a unit of writing which expresses a central idea and consists of two kinds of sentences, a topic sentence and a number of supporting statements. The topic sentence introduces the paragraph and it will give clear idea about the content of the paragraph. To maintain the unity in a paragraph, supporting ideas should be expressed in a paragraph. O’Donnell and Paiva(1993) gave more details about the essential parts of paragraph writing. The ideas in the paragraph should be presented in a logical order by using transitional words or connecting words, which indicate the relationship between ideas.
With this, Widdowson (1983) strongly suggests that communicative competence be taught alongside with grammatical competence. To make the decision of teaching both linguistic and communicative competence clear, Widdowson distinguishes two aspects of performance: “usage” and “use”. He explains that “usage” makes evident the extent to which the language user demonstrates his knowledge of linguistic rules, whereas “use” makes evident the extent to which the language user demonstrates his ability to use his knowledge of linguistic rules for effective communication. He also distinguishes two aspects of meaning: “significance” and “value”. Significance is the meaning that sentences have in isolation from the particular situation in which the sentence is produced.
Coherence and Cohesion in Academic Writing In writing, coherence is meant by thought 's connection at the idea level, while cohesion means that thought 's connection at the sentence level. Importantly, the aspects of coherence include to develop and support the argument sentence or thesis statement, and to organize and clarify ideas. And the cohesion in writing based on the grammatical aspects. In order to improve the coherence in writing, it is suggested to use one of the a "concept map" as a guide. Such map is known as "reverse outline" which means that the writer make an outline of his/her paper.
Cohesion in discourse 1.Scope of the study The central topic of this research is about cohesion in discourse. Discourse is more than a random set of utterances. It shows connected- ness. A central objective of linguists working on the discourse level is to characterize this connectedness. In their famouse cohesion in English, Halliday and Hasan (1976) describe text connectedness in terms of reference, substitution, ellipsis, conjunction, and lexical cohesion.
Therefore, communicative intention and the interpretation of utterance include all aspects of inferences and implicatures. This paper H.P Grice’s theory on communication and its development to the relevance theory, concentrating on the CP and the Maxims. Grice’s Pragmatic Theory Sperber and Wilson (2002) state that Grice developed a model of communication (the inferential model) as an alternative to the code model of communications. This, they (Sperber and Wilson) further developed to a better model called the relevance model (relevance theory of communication, filling in the loophole found in Grice’s account. In his theory, communication is purposeful and it is a cooperative activity whereby interlocutors follow a certain rule of cooperation supported by Maxims.
CHAPTER II REVIEW ON RELATED LITERATURE This chapter reviews some theories that are related to the present study. It presents cohesion in Systemic Functional perspective in Section 2.1, the translation and transfer in Section 2.2, the cohesion in translation in Section 2.3, the process of translation in Section 2.4, the strategy of translation in Section 2.5, how to assess translation in Section 2.6, and a review on related studies in Section 2.7. 2.1 Cohesion in Systemic Functional Perspective Cohesion is one of the elements that must exist in a text. Cohesion usually presents in a text together with coherence. Cohesion and coherence has a function to bind every part in the text such as clauses, sentences, or paragraph that relate to each
3.5 Transformational-Generative Grammar Transformational-Generative Grammar was introduced by Chomsky. It is a model which simulates the mind of a native speaker to generate grammatically correct sentence through a set of rules or principles and describes different languages. It is not only used to analysis the structure of a sentence, but also transform or general new elements to form a more complex sentence. 3.5.1 The Deep Structure and the Surface Structure Chomsky (1965) proposed the idea that there is a surface and a deep structure in each sentence. The deep structure is an underlying structure which is located in the phrase level (noun phrase and the verb phrase) of a sentence and it contains the semantic component of a sentence.
This theory was presented by Eugene A. Nida and Charles R. Taber. The theory suggests that translational equivalence can be divided into two kinds: i) formal equivalence, and ii) dynamic equivalence. Formal equivalence focuses on the grammatical structure or the lexical details of the original message. In this strategy, the emphasis is given to both form and content of the original language. The message of the receptor language should match the various aspects of the original language as much as possible.