Early Theories Of Migration

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My proposed research can be broadly divided into three main theoretical understandings: the first is, the theories relating to refugees, migration discourses and rights. The second is, the theories pertaining to multiple identities of refugees, migrants and other displaced constituencies in terms of age, gender, ethnicity, rurality and urbanity etc. Finally, the theory relating to psychosocial issues referring to post conflict situations, traumas (during journeys, in transition and post-destination) and the overall psycho-social wellbeing of young people. Each of this theoretical underpinnings will focus on the vulnerability and precarity of young people with a particular interest on the aspirations and ambitions, young Eritrean refugees hold…show more content…
19). The early theories of migration mainly focused on individual basis. Individuals were, thus, perceived as rational beings capable of making ‘cost and benefit’ analysis of their movements and mobilities. The argument that comes from this individualistic theory is that both ‘pushes’ and ‘pull ‘ factors are the main drivers for migration and surging in the number of refugees worldwide. This theory has been heavily criticized as Morrice put it: “for being ahistorical, for ignoring the structural inequality between rich and poor nations and the constraints these impose on choices and decision-making” (2011: 20). What followed next was that of ‘historical-structural approach’ focusing that migration should be understood from the perspectives of structural inequality that exist between the rich and the poor (Kofman et al 2000). Nevertheless, the critics of this approach have argued that this approach fails to see the role of ‘gender division’ and the ‘non economic reasons’ for…show more content…
Drawing from Caseles and Mille (2003), Morrice (2008) has summarized the “three-tier” structures of migration into: first, the macro-level is the structural norms and practices of migration at both receiving and sending ends; second, the meso-level is the link between the two layers that ensure accountability and auditability. This level could includes various actors and stakeholders such as various governmental and non-government organizations and institutions; finally, the micro-level identifies each migrant or refugee from distinct lived-experiences and multiple identities they hold which cross-cuts through age, sex, class, ethnicity, religion etc. In this research I adopt the latter level to understand the aspiration of young Eritreans for their diversity brings both opportunities and challenges at the same time. Another interesting focus in the current debate could be the focus on refugee's right. Refugees’ right is explicitly voiced in Convention 1951 by the Geneva Convention of International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC); Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) (1989) and Dakar Framework for Action (2000). More practically, however, the Millennium Development goals and (MDGs) and Sustainable
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