• Evaluate the effect of recruitment and selection on the organizational performance. • To judge the challenges related with the recruitment and selection methods used by the organization. RESEARCH QUESTIONS: 1. What are the recruitment and selection activities of organization? 2.
There are numerous theories attempted to explain job satisfaction, but three of them are more prominent. First is the Content theory, it explains job satisfaction as the situation of self-actualization and growth .Second is the process theory which says that a person is satisfied with his/her job when the expectations that he/she has from the job are being met .Third can be referred to as the situational theories which focuses on how individual personal characteristics are interact with the organizational characteristics (Travis G.Worrell, May 2004). Besides them there are different theories i.e Affect theory(1976) ,Dispositional approach(1997) ,equity theory(1963) ,discrepancy theory,motivator-hygiene theory,job characteristics theory (1960), etc.(Baptiste,N.R. 2008).There can be different emotions at workplace we can classify it into positive and negative emotions , workoverload can be a type of negrtive emotions at workplace it leads to stress, sadness etc (Weiss,2002)Work overload is a situation in which one person has to complete alot of work (Cambridge dictionaries). Work overload raise the stress physical and mental on individuals and their folk and other effects of work overload are: Reduction in job satisfaction, flaws in products and services and flaws that result in injuries to employees and customers emerge (Frank M. Gryna, 2004).
The research has to depend on the conclusions or inferences drawn in the past. For example, investors in the share market study the past records or prices of shares which he/she intends to buy. Studying the share prices of a particular company enables the investor to take decision whether to invest in the shares of a company. Crime branch police/CBI officers study the past records or the history of the criminals and terrorists in order to arrive at some conclusions. The main objective of this study is to derive explanation and generalization from the past trends in order to understand the present and anticipate the future.
Thus, the job satisfaction or , dissatisfaction doesn’t depend only on the nature of the work, but also the type of the work which is performed by the employee himself/ herself and lead to increase the employee’s comfortability and satisfaction. According to Xia and Johns (2000), the job satisfaction is a complicated phenomenon with various aspects. In the same context, Linz (2002) mentioned that job satisfaction may be impacted by the attitudes towards the work and organizational disciplines, and the positive attitude suppose to increase the attitude of the employee and that lead to increasing the job satisfaction and motivates the individual performance. Mowday and Porter (1979) mentioned that the attitude is considered as a hypothetical structure represents the individual attitude as mental or neural readiness as a result of experiments, and dynamic influence that are correlated to the individual responses to all cases. That means, they described the attitude as a tendency in order to act in a specific method based on the experience and the mood of the employee.
Cognitive theories were developed as psychological views of behavior around the middle of the twentieth century. According to this view, people do not respond only to external events or to physical conditions like thirst or hunger; they also respond to their perceptions of these events. In contrast to the behavioral view, as Woolfolk (1987), mentions that “the cognitive view emphasizes intrinsic (internal) sources of motivation, such as curiosity, interest in the task for its own sake, the satisfaction of learning, and a sense of accomplishment.” (p. 315) Pintrich & Schunk (1996), assert that these cognitive theories examine “the underlying mental processes involved in motivation and how these are affected by personal and environmental factors.”
Expectancy theory hypothesizes that it is the anticipated satisfaction of valued goals which causes an individual to adjust their behavior in a way which can be traced back to the early Utilitarians. J.S Mill and J. Bentham described an ethical system in which people determined their actions by a conscious calculation of the consequences which they expected actions to be brought about. In the twentieth century, psychologists such as Tolman and Lewin, were advocates of theories of performance by people who held that performance is governed by expectations concerning future events. This turned a normative theory of how people should base their actions, into a positive of how to
This effort will lead to a good performance evaluation and followed by rewards from the organization such as bonus, salary increase or promotion that later meet personal goals (Vroom, 1964). This theory is based on the hypothesis that individuals adjust their behavior in the organization based on the anticipated satisfaction of valued goals established by them. Individuals modify their behavior in ways that are more likely to lead to these goals. This theory underlies the concept of performance management, since performance is believed to be influenced by expectations with respect to future events (Salaman, 2005). Goal-setting theory had been proposed by Edwin Locke in 1968.
Compare and contrast any two HRM theories and any two HR models. The Victor Vroom’s expectancy theory is a motivation theory and it has three core components for the motivation of employee considering Expectancy, instrumentality or performance–reward relationship, valance and based on assumptions (Vroom, 1964). Identifies with a people conviction that by applying a specific measure of exertion they will accomplish a specific level of execution which is expectancy also known as an effort-performance relationship. Instrumentality or performance-reward relationship depend on every individual employee who believes how much amount of their work efforts will lead to desired outcomes (Robbins, Judge, Millett, & Waters-Marsh, 2008).
Introduction Employability refers personal ability to manage as well as gaining employment. The process of employability focuses between job and roles where as new ability is essential for organizational process. It also concerns regarding employment, new recruitment, labour market maintain and so many things. In the initial stage of report, the author has discussed personal employability and career planning for the best outcome in future performance. Next, the author has ensured the appraisal interview of performance by using different responsibility, theory and techniques.
While deciding about the recruitment the initial problem faced by the organization is “what suitable strategy that is internal or external to be used in the recruitment process for the organization”. For this, the important thing to consider before deciding whether to recruit internally or externally is the cost effectiveness and productivity of that approach. Moreover the fact that internal recruiting is better and more profitable results than hiring externally by the empirical and theoretical analysis by DeVaro and Morita (2008), the analysis is based on two models that are tournament model (promotion based incentive) by Lazear and Rosen (1981) and the job assignment model (increased performance results better wages). In other words tournament model explains how an employee is motivated by using promotion as an incentive for work, which results in better performance and increase productivity, Gibbs (1996). Whereas job assignment model explains how an organization increase its performance and productivity by giving vacant positions to those employees who are experienced and have better competencies to perform the job, Costrell (2004) and DeVaro