This model differentiates between push factors that drive people to leave home from pull factors that attract migrants to a new location. Push factors occurs within sending states, that is, those that send migrants abroad, while the pull factors occur within receiving states, that is states that received migrants from abroad. Push factors are negative aspects of the sending country, while pull factors are positive aspects of the receiving country. In fact, these differentiating factors are really two sides of the same coin. In addition, wars and conflicts are another reason for mass movements of people and this kind of movement is categorized as refuges.
Nowadays, people migrate because of social, environmental and political factors as well as for economic and cultural purposes. Through migration, economic growth can be sustained, job vacancies can be filled and immigrants bring innovation. But every action we take has negative consequences and these are: migrants may be exploited, there may be integration difficulties, increase in population and workers will work for low pay because this will allow their employers to ignore their productivity. It is clear that immigration can be
Migration is the geographic movement of people across a specified boundary for the purpose of establishing anew permanent or semi-permanent residence. Along with fertility and mortality, migration is a component of the population change. The term “in migration” and “out migration” are used for movement between areas within a country (internal migration). The parallel terms “immigration” and “emigration” are used to refer to moves between countries (international migration). There has been a basic difference in the processes of migration in developing countries from that of thedeveloped countries.
The migrants can move, however their present income is higher than the income in the place of destination. This is on the grounds that the migrants’ desire for a higher income that would have the capacity to compensate past loses over the long term (Todaro and Smith, 2003). In 1977, Brown and Neuberger as referred to in Kasahun (2000:11) speculated that a few migrants are essentially pushed out of a place of habitation by a combination of undesirable forces that living in the same place unfavorable and unappealing. Others are prompted to leave their home - pulled out- by attractive and promising situations in other places. Likewise, Bekure (1984:608) expressed that migration occurred when conditions in the area of origin became unbearable to live or at the point when the destination seemed
While the writer Carlos Encina and news article New American Economy are claiming that the drifting of the refugees has good social impacts including the fast adaptation of the refugees and decreasing the rate of crimes in the host countries, the movement of the refugees to the host countries can have more bad influences on the social aspects of the country like increasing the rate of crimes and creating problems because of the social barriers. The refugees need to run for a harmony life. When they get to a new life, they need to find jobs, establish a new life, and make contacts with their new community. “migrants and refugees show strong resilience and adaptability to new challenges and surroundings. They are willing to take a menial job when first settling” (Encina and Santalucia).
Migration policies affect the economic incorporation of immigrants in three main ways. First, migration policy can affect the economic integration of immigrants through the distribution of the various visa types by means of which immigrants enter the host country. Some countries use point-based systems to select immigrants on the basis of human capital or skills, and others use quota systems to recruit less skilled workers for specific jobs or economic sectors. Both systems imply some level of selectivity of the immigrant workforce. However, the admission of migrants via ‘noneconomic’ immigration grounds (mainly family reunification, refugees and students) also shapes the migrant workforce, as these categories of immigrants are generally entitled
Human migration comprehends the movements of persons or families from one place to another with the intention of settling temporarily or permanently in a destination place. This definition is enormously wide, large and it can be considered as part of the natural human activity, and as a necessity of the society’s evolution itself. However, the notion drags into consideration the political impact and consequences of the movement process of people or communities from one place to another, not only from the migrant insight but also from the host country’s observation. For the matter of this research, migration would be understood and limited to the definition of International Migration, which also includes different types of migration according to the reasons why the emigration may occur. For the purposes of this research, migration would be defined based on the clarity of the German office of Migration and Refugees (Bundesamt für Migration un Flüchtlinge) which identifies that this exodus occurs when one person moves from his or her usual place of residence and clarifies that international migration occurs when this migration happens across national boundaries (Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge, 2014, p. 10).
Trade with one country, which causes economic decline in another, may create incentive to migrate to a country with a more vibrant economy. According to this theory, migration follows the dynamic of market creation and structure of the global economy, but more individual motivations are not considered. Network Theory The network theory of migration does not look at the determinants which initiate migration but rather at what perpetuates migration in time and space (Massey et al. 1993). Network Theory (Boyed, 1989) shows that migrants, potential migrants, returnee migrants and non migrants in place of orgin and destination are connected through kinship, friendship and ethnicity.
Post-colonialism and post-modernism concepts in migration debates have provided very critically yet usually overlooked aspects in the literature on population movement. Post-colonial issues in migration deal with the impact of the colonial social structures which have shaped contemporary migration trends in the context of globalization. The social structures and connections during the colonial period between the former colonizers or capitalist nations and the formerly colonized or peripheral areas are retained and transferred to the post-colonial period (Massey et al, 1993). This can be contextualised to the situation of many migrants who move to the former colonizers’ regions because of being more developed and in need for better opportunities from the formerly colonized locations because of less development and lack of better opportunities, however the migrants are usually subdued, marginalized, excluded, and suffer from various disparities in their places of destination. Post-modernism perspective on migration as noted by (Boyle, Halfacree, and Robinson, 2014) entails that migration must not be viewed through one approach or a single methodology; instead the argument is that a specific approach or methodology must be chosen according to the concept or context at hand.
This influenced destination to provide goods and services that promotes tourism though migration (William and Hall, 2000). It is argued that the relationship between tourism and migration can be traced back to history and this evidenced by the immigrants when they attempt to connect with their past when they visit their original place of stay (William and Hall, 2000; Butler, 2003; O’Reilly, 2003). It is significant to understand that tourism does not lead to migration but migration leads to tourism (William and Hall, 2000). Migration and mobility is as a result of push-pull factors such as promotion of opportunities, work, conflict and trade (Boyd, 1989; Nshimbi and Fioramonti, 2014). William (2013) asserts that there are four determinants which contribute to mobility patterns: technology, market relationships, cultures of mobility and the state.