When the coordinating group itself sides with one of the department groups the lack of communication and isolation of some grows more than necessary. They view their position as a post of power and they are entitled to do what they feel like causing more disharmony within the coordination group and within the
They have their suspicions but are afraid to say it out loud, as it would not correspond to their ideologies. The British men try to solve the problem on their own way, which is torturing the Silver Man; they do not even consider asking the temple people for help or doing some research on the myth surrounding Fleete, disregarding other possible solutions. They live in a foreign culture and thus, “lack the cultural framework within which they are situated” (Battles 341) –
On the other hand, in public view, it feels soothing to give responsibility to one mind. People mostly do not stand for taking responsibilities in serious times. Also, opponents of autocratic leadership claim that everyone has right to share ideas. They argue that autocracy obstructs to birm of better ideas and further, the ones who disagree with their leader gets pushed out. However, those arguments are mostly irrational.
Groupthink can lead to people making rather irrational decisions due to the belief that a group cannot be wrong (Janis, 1972). History has shown that some decisions made through groupthink have ended up being tragic. 12manage (2009) points out that some of the symptoms of groupthink are illusion of invulnerability, belief in inherent morality of the group, collective rationalization, out-group stereotypes, self-censorship, illusion of unanimity, direct pressure on dissenters, and self appointed mind-guards. This symptoms can be solved through appointing a devil’s advocate; encouraging everyone in the group to be a critical assessor; avoiding stating one’s stance initially as the group leader; setting up independent factions; dividing the group
“Illusions of Invulnerability” describes the potential for a group to become overconfident in their ability to make decisions leading to reckless choices, which have not been thought throughーbelieving that no matter what happens their decision will work out (Lunenburg). “Collective Rationalization” is another one of the traits Janis explained as an indication of groupthink, which occurs when, “group members collectively rationalize in order to discount warnings that might lead them to reconcile their assumptions before they commit themselves to their past policy decisions” (Lunenburg). The next symptom of groupthink nicknamed, “Belief in Inherent Morality of the Group”, explains collectives believe all members uphold similar morals/ rightness in decision-making, leaving decisions unchecked, as they are assumed to always be correct. This is similar to the Illusions of Invulnerability phenomenon due to the high level of trust in the groups ability to decide, and like in Collective Rationalization, allows the group to brush off the possibility of being wrong (Communication
but even with this freedom. they know that they are barriers that they can’ be seen “ There were some who thought it stupid to be concerned about possibles at all. our models were an irrelevance, a technical necessity for bringing us into the world, nothing more than that. it was up to each of us to make of our lives what we could “ (Ishiguro 92). The dystopia has come to represent a society in which the individuals are repressed and their personal freedom is lost.
Ingratiation It refers to “a class of strategic behavior illicitly designed to influence a particular other person concerning the attractiveness of one’s personal qualities” (Jones, 1964). These involves complementing another person or indulging in flattery with certain amount of credibility and honesty. It also involves opinion conformity, agreed with another person’s view point. It has been observed that we like those who think or act like us. Rosenfeld et al., (1995) states that ingratiation (facilitates interpersonal relations and enhance harmony within the organization.
Refusing to Ask for Help One of the most common mistakes made by inexperienced PMs is the belief that asking for help will make them seem incompetent in the eyes of their peers and management. Refusing to seek out help can result in schedule slippages, and cost overruns. If the PM delays too long in seeking help, the number of options to correct the problem can diminish. Solution: The owner should encourage PMs to ask for help at the earliest possible time, but not to expect the owner to be the dumping ground for all problems that the PM cannot resolve. 18.
First of all, we can see how the harshness of living conditions and the personal feelings can quickly demoralize a society as the situation cannot be controlled by anyone. The quest for personal power becomes the logic by which situations are judged and the ethical ramifications are often ignored all together. Next, leaders who operate under the guidance of darkness are quick to justify that their action are acting on behalf of those unable to make their own decisions. In reality, selfish interests often guide their decisions. In addition, a lack of morals and values respecting life and liberty, like those present in the RUF camps progresses to chaos and unethical actions.
The three basic postulates of theory X are as follows: (1) The average human being has inherent dislike for work and will avoid it if he can. (2) To get most people to work towards an organization’s goals, they must be coerced, controlled, directed and threatened with punishment. (3) The average human being prefers to be directed, wants to avoid responsibility, has very little ambition and seeks security above all. Theory X accords management complete control of human effort. School administrators using Theory X would seek to control the actions of both teachers and students, discourage participation, and work according to book, leaving little or no room for individual initiative.