It is likely that because this factor seems to be self-evident in nature, that it has received very little attention in the literature. Upon review of the statistics however, it is clear that parent criminality plays a significant role in the development of juvenile delinquency. Going back to the aspect of learned behavior, it is not at all difficult to see the connection. Witnessing parental violence and criminality forces the child into a situation where he or she normalizes the behavior and applies it to their everyday interaction in the environment. Wright & Wright (1993), in their analysis of the literature found that children who engaged in delinquency were most likely to have criminal mothers or father.
However, the gender differences in parental control may not translate to the influence of parental control on delinquency. In a sample of white adolescents, Seydilitz (1991) found that parental control influences delinquent behavior more for males than for females. Similar results were found with children with a mean age of 8.6 in Washington D.C (Wilkins, 2006). Parental control influenced intent to use substances more for males than for females. Vermeersch and colleagues (2008) found opposing results in a group of 14-15 year old Flemish adolescents.
Two major themes of family dynamics and childhood victimization are a constant thread found in juvenile delinquency research and literature. Specific family structures contribute to the likelihood of delinquency more than others. Nuclear, blended, parental cohabitation, single parent, and incarcerated parent family structures affect the incidences of juvenile delinquency to varying degrees. Adding one variable on top of others compounds the stressors that increase the probability of juvenile delinquency. Each style of the family unit has traits that alter the risk of delinquency.
First, it could be that parents with criminal records or parents with poor behavior lack discipline, affection and supervision towards their children and that family conditions are related to delinquency as it is stated in the study of Glueck and McCord (as cited in Gottfredson & Hirschi, 1990). Children of offenders are strangely exposed to crime. The theory assumes that criminality is not what parents work to produce but is something they should avoid. In this view, parents with criminal records prohibit their children to involve themselves with crime, but this does not mean that they were able to prevent it. Second, low self-control goes with the wrong system parents do.
It was found that adolescent maltreatment with the addition of negative emotions, including anger, anxiety, and depression, were a strain that led to delinquency. Even after controlling negative emotions, the parent-child relationships were a strong source of delinquency (Hollist, Hughes, & Schaible,
Introduction Child and juvenile delinquency is a problem that affects every member within a community directly or indirectly. Whether it be having a family member who is a delinquent or having to pay more in taxes to cover the expenses associated with child and juvenile delinquency. In this paper I will highlight the prevalence and development of child delinquency, review the risk and protective factors, and end with the need for more and accessible treatment, services, and intervention programs. Prevalence and Development of Child Delinquency Although most studies conducted on juvenile delinquency have been conducted on adolescents ages twelve and up, child delinquency, which is categorized by children under twelve, has risen. It may be
Among all forms of attachments, parental attachment, or family attachment, is the most frequently researched element, looks into parental supervision, time spent between parents and children and parent’s understanding of friends of their children (Booth, Farrell& Varano,2008). The tendency to commit delinquency is found to be negatively associated with the dissemination of prosocial values and quality time spent together with parents (Wright, Cullen & Miller, 2001). Peer attachment is considered as another decisive social bond that alters one to be delinquent or not. Jang (2002) revealed a decrease in parental attachment during adolescence might enhance peer association. Hirschi (1969) recognized the notion as “peer effect” as influential in the way that it could turn individual into delinquents.
This research paper has been able to adequately shown that the causes of delinquency; how teachers must be able to assist and recognize children who are at risk of falling into the category of delinquent early before they become part of the criminal system. How Communities and neighbourhood could assist in raising a child. Police Officers and the role they should play in terms of programmes and support groups. Howard N. Synder 2008, states that parents should be aware of and accept responsibility for their children upbringing. That they should be able to show how the church and several organizations have a strong influence in maintaining a stable social relationship.
Most children who grew up in a conflict ridden and violent households do not always become delinquent but would have violent outbursts from time to time (Wright K. N., 1993, p. 6). These children are responsible for breaking a cycle of crime. This is due to many being placed in foster care and adapting to a new environment (Wright K. N., 1993, p. 6). Children who came from a violent home usually live life with a lot of social issues and problems (Fagan, 1995) due to their past and
For example, withdrawal from school and society is interrelated with several other factors associated with low-self control, and these factors are interrelated with several family-level factors associated with various stressors and inability to cope with stressful events which are also associated with juvenile delinquency, (Christle, Jolivette, & Nelson, 2005). According to the World YOUTH Report, (2003), the rise in juvenile delinquency has been virtually in all parts of the world since late 1990s and early parts of the second millennium. This is presumably due to social and economic upheaval and change that occurred throughout the