UBT1 Task 1: Electricity Introduction What is Electricity? This question is difficult to answer because this is a broad concept of science with multiple definitions. In physics, Electricity is a naturally occurring phenomenon of the flow of electric charge. In other words, the process of attraction and repulsion between electric charges produce electricity. There are two types of charges- negative charges and positive charges.
Abstract The purpose of carrying out this experiment was to investigate the phenomenon of Newtons’s Rings, to gain a better understanding of the theory Newton developed as well as to calculate the radius of curvature of a plano-convex lens and the thickness of a section of optical fibre. The effect is named after Isaac Newton who first studied it in 1717. The pattern observed appears as a series of concentric bright and dark fringes, which has its centre at the point of contact between two surfaces. The experiment was conducted by allowing monochromatic light from a sodium lamp, which is a monochromatic source, to fall normally onto the plano-convex lens. The light underwent reflection and refraction and was observed by a travelling microscope.
The transmitted wave/light will experience refraction at the boundary between media. As we observe the diagram on the right, the individual wavefronts will bend as it cross the boundary. Once the wavefront cross the boundary, it travels in a straight line, hence why refraction is known as a boundary behaviour. The diagram shows a ray drawn perpendicular to the wavefronts which represents the direction which light travels. We can see that the rays travel in a straight line inside of the two media, and bends at the boundary.
In 1932 James Chadwick discovered a second particle in the nucleus, he fired alpha particles at beryllium and found that neutrons were released. He revised Bohr’s model of the atom to include a representation of both protons and neutrons in the visual diagram. Today we know that electrons orbit a nucleus made up of protons and neutrons and that the electrons can be described as both waves and
1672 - Colours explained Isaac Newton demonstrates how white light can be separated into a spectrum of colours with a prism. He develops ideas about different colours of light being absorbed, transmitted or reflected. His book Opticks is released to the public in 1704. 1678 - Wave theory Dutch physicist Christiaan Huygens argues that light consists of waves and uses this theory to explain double refraction. Thomas Young’s experiments (1801) support Huygens’s wave theory.
• Higher turbulence levels are required. • Erosion of spark plug electrodes. Laser: A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation. The term "laser" originated as an acronym for "light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation". Laser provide intense and unidirectional ray of light.
Not only the crystalline lens, but also radial and circular muscles regulate a crystalline lens tension. The crystalline lens is not a solid body – it’s elastic allows to change light refraction angle. It is the making component of the mechanism of a dynamic refraction. The essence of process consists that at absence on a retina of a sharp image of a subject (a poor or excessive tension of a crystalline lens); the signal
The Raman spectroscopy allows the identication of homogeneous materials on the basis of their molecular vibrational spectra, obtained by excitation with visible laser light. This spectroscopy is based on the Raman ef- fect, which concerns to the molecular structure of the objects under analysis. When a monochromatic light impacts on a material, the light is scattered. Most of the scattered light has the same wavelength as the inci- dent light (the Rayleigh scattering) and a small portion is shifted in wavelength due to molecular vibrations and rotations (the Raman scattering) . With this spectro- scopic technique, it is possible to analyze particles in the micron order and to identify species at molecular level with minimum or no preparation at all.
Light is a component of the electromagnetic spectrum, the spectrum is that the assortment of all waves, that include light, Microwaves, Radio waves, X-Rays, and Gamma Rays. In the late year’s of 1600s, vital problems were raised, asking if light is made up of particles, or is it waves .? Sir Isaac Newton, held the idea that light was created from little particles. In 1678, Dutch scientist, Christian Huygens, believed that light was made up of waves moving up and down perpendicular to the direction of the light travels, and thus developed some way of visualising wave propagation. This was referred to as 'Huygens' Principle'.
Radio waves have frequencies of 30 kHz to 3GHz. Its wavelength can range from 1km to 1000km. James Clark Maxwell first predicted the existence of radio waves, but its discovery was attributed to Heinrich Hertz. The latter proved its existence based on Maxwell’s equations. Microwaves have frequencies of 300MHz to 300GHz.