The agriculture sector in Ethiopia plays pivotal roles in economic growth, poverty alleviation, employment creation, foreign exchange earnings and food security. Despite the enormous contribution over the past years, its significance is limited because of various factors and hence it is becoming increasingly difficult to meet the food requirements of the growing population (Jon, 2007; Abera, 2011; UNDP, 2013). One of the significant contributors for its deprived performance is the low productivity of the sector in general and cereal production in particular over the past years (Alemayehu, 2009; Alemayehu et al. 2012). Such low productivity leads to increasing poverty and food insecurity of rural poor farm households in the country.
The study of chronic poverty in Indian context has attracted major attention in recent times. India is country housing major proportion of rural households, who are vulnerable and susceptible to poverty. There exists rich literature on the rural poverty and its causes within the Indian context. However, delving deeper in, chronic poverty and its relationship with migration has received much attention only in the recent times. Chronic Poverty is a state of extreme poverty which makes it impossible for people to escape, given their lack of resources and assets.
The rural poor is perpetuating poverty and is the victims of the “vicious cycle of poverty” Credit is important in the lives of the rural poor in a developing economy. As the distribution of land in the countryside remains skewed, the majority of the rural population is left with an inadequate resource base for production. Faced with a weak social security system to fall back upon, this section of landless or near-landless rural population is forced to depend upon credit for its livelihood. It was this understanding that led
LITERATURE REVIEW Rural poverty means the poverty that is found in rural areas, which includes factors of rural society, rural economy, and also rural political systems which give rise to the poverty found there.  Rural poverty is often studied in conjunction with spatial inequality, which refers to the inequality between urban as well as rural areas. The rural poverty and the spatial inequality both are global phenomena, in general, there are higher rates of rural poverty in the developing countries than when compared to the developed countries. Removing rural poverty through effective policies and economic growth is still a challenge for the international community. poverty is an important issue in the field of rural development.
This further puts a financial burden of rural communities who see their agricultural activities slowly disappear in favor of cheaper imports from China, South America or the like. As s result, rural economies are often very fragile and lack the robustness of the industrialized urban
Human poverty index It includes deprivation of a long healthy life, deprivation of knowledge, deprivation of decent living standards Uganda has made enormous progress in reducing poverty, slashing the countrywide incidence from 56 percent of the population in 1992 to 24.5 percent in 2009. The reduction of poverty in urban areas has been especially marked. Poverty in Uganda is an important issue as an appreciable number of people in Uganda; specifically, rural people are below the poverty line. About 60% of the Ugandan people are poor and 30% are very poor. CAUSES OF POVERTY Over population This is defined as the situation of having large numbers of people with too few resources and too little space.
Indeed, a bad agricultural year is a bad year all around both for the government and the people”51 Most of the poor in India still live in rural areas. The living conditions of rural people are predominantly affected by the performance of agriculture and its changes. Hence agriculture plays an important role particularly in rural India where most of the people live in. Though agriculture plays a decisive role in Indians’ lives and is the back bone of Indian economy, the glory of agriculture is deteriorating as its share to GDP is decreasing
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW Various literature have been concerned with modeling the effects of migration on productivity in both developed and developing countries with most relating to the socio economic impact of migration on rural areas within these countries including Nigeria. There has been a shortage of research on rural-urban migration and its effect on agricultural productivity in Nigeria. Although there’s quite a lack of literature on rural-urban migration and agricultural productivity in Nigeria some authors have made reference to it because migration from the rural areas greatly concerns Nigeria’s food supply as most of her food is gotten from the rural areas. This chapter is concerned with the conceptual definitions of basic
Causes of poverty in Pakistan: Poverty in Pakistan has multiple factors and is not solely dependent on any one factor. These include economic factors, social factors and most importantly political factors. These together form the roots of poverty in Pakistan. Vicious Circle of Poverty: Just like other developing countries Pakistan is also victim of vicious circle of poverty. According to definition of vicious circle of poverty a country remains poor because their income level remains low because of which there are low investments and saving and hence deficiency of capital.
However some causes according to Rural Poverty Portal may be “ decline in the productivity and profitability of farming, smaller farm sizes and unsustainable practices that have led to deforestation and depleted fishing waters”. Furthermore since these areas are indeed rural they may experience ‘lag’ when discussing economic trends or growth, this also has a direct relation to the fact that these areas have limited access to different productive assets and business opportunities. Lastly the Culture of these areas also contribute to the high poverty rates. Since majority of the jobs in these areas are Fishers, Farmers etc. the entire culture tends to revolve around that.