3.1) Theories of Behaviour Management Behaviour management is a tool, a system, generates learning environment to encourage positive behaviour and minimise the opportunity for negative conduct to occur. It is like modifying and change learner's action in a positive manner where the primary focus lies on maintaining order. Many theorists presented their views in their research work on the understanding of the nature of the behaviour BILL ROGER is an education consultant and author present his work on behaviour management, discipline, effective teaching, and stress management etc. and also lectures widely covers the topic to both the learner and the teacher for the challenges facing in leadership in educational premises. Bill Roger recommended
Motivation is often described as goal-directed behavior that linked to feelings of personal effectiveness and develops an intrinsic desire to learn. Students study because it produces personal positive consequences such as knowledge, competency or a sense of independence. Importantly, those who experience success are more likely to value their own competence than those who regularly experience failure (Churchill 2011). Cauley and Pannozzo (2011) proposed that beliefs about successes and failures affect expectations and goals concerning future
Vygotsky assumes that learner will learn best when actively participating in a learning session with the teacher through doing constructed activities. Vygotsky builds a theory of Zone Proximal Development (ZPD) which is an undercover area of knowledge that a learner can build when teacher able to refine the way of learner perform. In social constructivism, the role of human linguistic abilities enable learner to outdone natural limitation. Vygotsky ZPD will enables the learner to reach a potential development by the guidance and participation or teacher as facilitator and peers. A learner capability of problem-solving and understanding situation will be upgraded above their actual development because constructivist believes the cognitive structures that still in the process of maturing will mature after compromising with the guidance or with the participation with others.
Student motivation and performance were assumed to be significant reinforces for teaching behaviors. Thus, Teachers with a high level of Efficacy believed that they could control, or at least strongly influence, student achievement and motivation, thus the concept of Teacher Efficacy was originated. Teacher Efficacy has been defined as "the extent to which the Teacher believes he or she has the capacity to affect student performance" (Berman, McLaughlin, Bass, Pauly, & Zellman, 1977, p. 137), or as "Teachers' belief or conviction that they can influence how well students learn, even those who may be difficult or unmotivated" (Guskey & Passaro, 1994, p.
Bruner Piaget influenced Bruner on his research about Child development, he believed that learning is an active process and that learners need to develop their own knowledge and ideas using their current or previous knowledge. The effective instruction includes: • Personalized: instruction should relate to learner’s experiences that motivates the student to learn from within one’s self. • Content Structure: Content must be designed so it can be easily grasped by the student. He also called this aspect a “Spiral curriculum” building thinking and learning skills over time to make it deeper and more complex, builds on itself. • Sequencing: An important aspect of material presentation.
Differentiation during a lesson has now become an important part of behaviour for learning. Students need to be motivated and challenged at the same time during a lesson. This would greatly bring down the opportunity or chance for any sort of misbehaviour. Building on from the idea of lesson planning, a teacher has to be aware that they use positive and different use of questioning in the class to promote good quality thinking. (Rogers, 2015) To further highlight what Kyriacou (2009) states, there appear to be three central and crucial aspects to pupils’ engagement during a lesson.
DEWEY THEORY Dewey’s theory emphasizes the need to learn by doing. He believed that human beings learn through a 'hands-on ' approach. He believed that ‘to prepare the child for the future life means to give him command of himself; it means so to train him that he will have the full and ready use of all his capacities ‘and this truly can only be achieved through a hands on approach. Dewey’s theory emphasized the fact that a teacher centred curriculum, plan, and teach in many cases causes children to look away from learning but a child centred plan curriculum and learning where the child’s strengths and interest are built on. This can be achieved if the teacher becomes the facilitator of learning by selecting a set of natural objects which children can relate to, feel and discuss.
His study provides a profound learning approaches that are essential on enhancing the impression of the learning environment. To begin with, it is opposite with the view on "it is understudies' impression of the learning condition that impacts how an understudy learns, not really the setting in itself." This examination features that understudies' ways to deal with adapting by one means or another impact the understudies' view of the learning condition. Consequently, elevating understudies to embrace a profound and vital learning methodology may be a valuable system to guarantee that they see the learning condition
Learning to constructivist is an active process aiming to develop learners’ new ideas based on their current and experience and knowledge (Brandon & All, 2010). Constructivism as a learning theory centers its principles on helping the learning process unlike controlling it as in the view of behaviorism (Lober, 2006). Key contributors to the development of this theoretical approach include Lev Vygotsky, Jean Piaget, and Ernst von Glasersfeld. (Liu & Chen, 2010). The constructivist perspective challenges the traditional way of thinking about how knowledge is acquired as well as challenging objectivism, a concept central to the behaviorist view of learning since objectivism paved the way for the rise of a behaviorist perspective of teaching and learning.
It leads to multiple solutions with a broader perspective. • Responsibility: - Dewey opines that responsible teachers bring changes in the students by their experimentation .Reflecting one’s principles to enhance teaching as well as an active yearning to listen more, to pay attention to alternative possibility. Reflective teachers are constantly questioning themselves with questions