According this approach, the core component of human behaviour is the individual’s intention to perform a given activity. Intention is supposed to reflect the individual’s levels of motivation whereas it reveals how much he/she will try in order to achieve his/her goal. Three independent critical factors determine individual’s intention towards behaviour. The first is the individual’s attitude toward the behaviour which refers to positive or negative evaluations of the behaviour per se. The second determinant is named subjective norm which has to do with possible social pressure which is exerted on the individual to engage or not to engage in the behaviour; and the third is individual’s perceived behavioural control which denotes to the extent to which the person believes that he/she has the ability to control the behaviour under question.
Sami in 2009 postulates that evaluation is the analysis of personal goals in achieving ones goals in life. That is to say that, you are looking beyond the outcome of your learning goals if it has achieved or not (Schraw and Moshman, 1995). Types of Metacognition Theories Schraw in 1995 found that metacognitive theories were referred to individuals’ knowledge which covers two important domains; the knowledge of cognition and the regulation of cognition. By “theory”, accordingly we mean to the structure of predicting a broad empirical phenomena. In relation, “metacognitive theories” are relatively broad range of cognitive and metacognitive phenomena.
Moritz Schlick is a representative of logical positivism doctrine. His definition of free will, determinism and moral responsibility derives from the definition of punishment. He supposes that “Punishment is an educative measure, and as such is a means to the formation of motives, which are in part to prevent the wrongdoer from repeating the act (reformation) and in part to prevent others from committing a similar act (intimidation). Analogously, in the case of reward we are concerned with an incentive." (Schlick, p. 152).
Employee Consultation and Reward Systems: Tiffany&Co, as any other firm uses Reward systems; it includes commission and promotional schemes. When the human resources department identifies a talent, it seeks to nurture this talent. Another reward to the employees that may not be formally documented and put into a system is the highly mannered behavior towards the employees, eventually behavioral approach in which Tiffany&Co believe this to act as good motivators for their employees. This type of relationship stems from the culture of the UAE, guaranteeing its employees the best kind of respect, working hours and environment. In general, the money reward incentive is a basic reward system that motivates the employer into giving more into his work.
If educators can find ways to support autonomous motivation in the delivery of instruction, then optimal learning can be achieved (Niemiec & Ryan, 2009). Deci and Ryan (2000) postulate that an individual needs intrinsic motivation as well as three intrinsic psychological needs in order to initiate these behaviours and maintain good psychological well-being and self-determination (as cited by Niemiec & Ryan 2009). These universal needs are autonomy, competence, and relatedness. These components together form the self-determination model which emphasizes supporting student autonomy in order to achieve positive learning outcomes. Intrinsic motivation refers to behaviours done in the absence of external impetus that are inherently interesting and
Bandura, is one of the principal founders of self efficacy theory which defines self efficacy as “ people’s judgements of their capabilities to organise and execute courses of actions required to attain designated types of performance” (Bandura, 1986, p. 391).banduras theory simply means that people work harder and stay motivated in issues they believe they are good at. It has nothing to do with inborn, inherent traits. It is a self evaluation that one makes about his/her personal competence to achieve a particular target. Both self efficacy and attributions have direct influence on intrinsic motivational levels. They affect expectations of success that we set and out future learning behaviour.
Motivation is a drive and wants that direct behaviour toward a goal. Arnold, Cooper and Robertson (1998) discuss motivation as what drives individual choice of what to do, how hard to try, and how long to keep trying. Cited in (MacDonagh. J, Linehan.
Self determination theory is concerned to explain human motivation and psychology .This theory claims that there are two main types of motivational sources :intristic and extristic and have a great impact on the way how different individuals perceive the same behavior .Self determination theory is related also with three universal needs which are : autonomy, competence and psychological relatedness. According to Ryan (1995) “self‐determination theory is an ‘organismic psychology’. One of a family of holistic psychological theories including Jean Piaget and Carl Rogers, and thus assumes that people are active organisms with inherent and deeply evolved tendencies toward psychological growth and development.” (Ryan,2009:1) Researches also highlight the importance that theory has on the psychological domain of human beings .For this reason they claim that Self Determination theory is like the field of study of the human beings tendencies to grow , their personality changes among the time and also to make the evidence of the basic needs that are related with their psychological development and which have a positively contribution on the improvement of different perspectives in their
Moreover, these goals direct people's attitude, and once they submit themselves to the goals; more exertion ought to be applied to accomplish these goals. In addition, the managers can use money related impetuses or participation to direct worker's encouragement towards accomplishing the association's goal. Furthermore, the motivating forces and values will influence behaviour only if the goals are made more appealing. However, the fulfilment or disappointment with execution will rely on upon whether the people came to a difficult but fair objective. The execution of this theory for administration is that goal setting may be utilised as a powerful technique for encouraging workers, as long as the goals are obviously characterised and they are fair and there is a sound quality control framework in place.
The Theory Y managerial approach adopts a positive viewpoint. It assumed that staff like to work and wish to deal with challenging issues -should both the work itself and the organisations environment be appropriate. Subsequently, should these factors be adequate; Theory Y suggests that staff will then work willingly, without coercion or control. Theory Y assumes that staff are motivated by their needs for recognition, respect, esteem and self actualisation. It would seem from research that a manager adopting a Theory Y managerial approach is more likely to motivate a social care staff than adopting a Theory X managerial