The volume data is derived from a thermal expansion coefficient, α (K-1) = 2.924 x 10- 5 + 2.920 x 10-10 (T-300)2 . Big changes between two of the symmetrically-independent intertetrahedral, Fe-O-P bridging and tile angles, produce an angular variation which will cause a thermal expansion to occur. In the α phase, there is a greater angular variation as compared to the β phase where there is no angular variation due to molecules such as SiO2. Due to the decrease of Fe-O distance with increasing temperature which is based on the changes of average δ and θ angles, it causes instability. Therefore, by using the tilt angle parameter only, the α- β transition can be modelled.
This report provides an analysis of the fluidization process of a solid in a stationary fluidized bed. The heat transfer and hydrodynamic characteristics of a fluidized bed were determined to evaluate if the operating parameters for the system could be verified by empirical correlation. Two parts to the experiments were performed. The first part studied the effect of a changing air flow rate with pressure at a constant temperature. A range of air flow rates from 0.15 to 3.5-g/L were used.
At the same time as triggering switch 1 the voltage (V) was read off the display on the meter in fig 1. The second temperature and voltage readings were recorded using the same methods as used to obtained the first readings. The height of the monometer was also recorded after the temperature and voltage were recorded. When the air velocity increased the plate started to encounter difficulties heating to the desired temperature. To solve to this problem, we allowed the plate to rise above the desired temperature and then we switched the fan on.
As mentioned in the hypothesis, the prediction is that as the temperature increases towards the optimal, the rate of respiration will increase. As the temperature exceeds the optimal, the rate of respiration will decrease. The temperature of the environment can be varied by placing the respiration chamber under a temperature-controlled water bath/cooling bath. The temperatures that will be used in this experiment will range from 0ºC to 50ºC in 10ºC increments. Digital thermometer will be used to measure the temperature of air.
For an endothermic reaction, heat is absorbed in the reaction, and the value of ΔH is positive. For an exothermic reaction, the situation is just the opposite. Heat is released in the reaction, so heat is a product, and the value of ΔH is negative. If we picture heat as a reactant or a product, we can apply Le Chatelier's principle on raising or lowering concentrations. For instance, if we raise the temperature on an endothermic reaction, it is essentially like adding more reactant to the system, and therefore, by Le Chatelier's principle, the equilibrium will shift the right.
3 Analytical Solution We try to simplify the above model and solve it analytically. Since the micro-bubble fluid consist of liquid and bubbles, so it can be assumed as semi-incompressible fluid. Assume that the liquid phase (water) is incompressible in wide ranges of the pressure. i.e. ρ_w=constant .
Yang et al. used the experimental performance of a hydraulic diaphragm metering pump to estimate its influence on ORC WHR behavior [ATE 132 (2018) 605-612]. Using R123 as a working fluid, the power input, actual efficiency, and mass flow rate were investigated for varying outlet pressure. From this data, ORC performance was simulated to determine how such parameters would influence the ORC. Subsequently, the mass flow rate of the pump was independent of pressure, whereas the actual pump efficiency increased nonlinearly with outlet pressure.
The term conjugate heat transfer is used to describe processes which include variations of temperature within solid and fluid, due to thermal interaction between the solid and fluid. The analysis of this problem must be performed in both sides, in solid side where conduction often dominates and in fluid side where convection usually dominates. Many researches have been devoted to solve temperature fields in such problem, Most of them solved the problem numerically. In conjugate heat transfer problems the conditions at the interface are not known so that the energy equations in the fluid side and in the solid side must be solved simultaneously, where continuity conditions of the heat flux and temperature have to be supplied at the fluid and solid interface. Due to the importance of conjugate heat transfer problem, analytical solutions must be developed.
Varga et al  investigated the effect of the variable area ratio ejector using two types of refrigerants by using CFD, the model that used in the simulation was RNG version of k-ϵ turbulence model, the model was chosen because it has been demonstrated from recent studies to predict well shock wave structure and pressure recovery in ejectors. The area ratio achieved by applying a movable spindle position at the primary inlet, the results obtained showed the increase of ejector performance up to 177% at low condenser pressure. Alejandro et al  implemented a variable geometry mechanisms to evaluate the efficiency of an ejector used in refrigeration application, CFD simulation was used for the evaluation, in the simulation a realizable k-ϵ turbulent was selected and the model was axisymmetric, the results showed that the improvement of the proposed ejector was reached up to 8.23% over the baseline ejector, it was clearly demonstrated that the entrainment ratio
There are molecules that are so powerful, they break through the attraction forces that keep the molecules together, this is called intermolecular forces (Ophardt, 2013). Breslyn (2016) explained that boiling point is when vapor pressure of a substance such as liquid is equal to the atmospheric pressure. Atmospheric pressure relates to the space of pressure above the liquid, whereas vapor pressure is defined as pressure that is created by the molecules changing from liquid to gas form, when these molecules change to gas they collide with air molecules. Boiling can take place after or before the boiling point of a substance is reached. Li (2014), explains that intermolecular forces are a set of attractive and repulsive forces that occur between molecules due to the polarity of the molecules.