I. Introduction This experiment uses calorimetry to measure the specific heat of a metal. Calorimetry is used to observe and measure heat flow between two substances. The heat flow is measured as it travels from a higher temperature to a lower one. Specific heat is an amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of anything one degree Celsius.
Introduction Heat is the form of energy, thermal energy, which flows between two substances due to their difference in temperature.1 The measurement of heat flow is called Calorimetry and the apparatus used to measure the heat flow (temperature change) for a reacting system is called a calorimeter. The calorimeter is well-insulated device that help to minimize the heat exchange between the system being observed and its surroundings. In this experiment, simple calorimeter, coffer cup calorimeter containing Styrofoam cups is used. Calorimeter contains a thermometer and a stirrer.3 Thermometer is typically inserted in the calorimeter to measure the change in the temperature that results from the reaction. Stirrer is used to keep the contents
FEA Treatment of Thermal Modeling The basis for thermal analysis in ANSYS is a heat balance equation obtained from the principle of conservation of energy. The finite element solution performed via Mechanical APDL calculates nodal temperatures, and then uses the nodal temperatures to obtain other thermal quantities. The ANSYS program handles all three primary modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. Mesh was created in Ansys. The mesh had 144005 elements.
Ohms are measured in Ω, or omega. Voltage is measured in volts, or v. Current is measured in amps, or I. Resistance is measured in ohms, or r. For pipes, voltage would be like the water pressure, current would be like the flow rate, and the resistance would be like the pipe size. The equation to measure voltage is V=IR.A variant of this, Ohm’s law, for measuring resistance, has this
Early measuring instrument for small electric currents consisted of coil of insulated copper wire wound on a circular non-magnetic frame. Working based on the principle of the tangent law of magnetism. Galvanometer works on the principle of conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy. When the current flows in a magnetic torque. Galvanometer has a word called sensitivity of galvanometer is defined as the current in micro ampere required to consume one millimeter deflection on a scale placed 1m away from a mirror.
Then using the radiation sensor to measure the thermal radiation (4 surfaces). Also take notes of the voltage across the cube (voltmeter). Then using the target thermistor resistance at temp of 125 ͦC, 120 ͦC, 115 ͦC etc. (use a fan to cool the leslies cube) Theory: Stefan-Boltzmann law is defined as J=ɛσT4 Where T= radiates energy with radiant heat flux σ= 5.67x10-8 Wm-2 K-4 ɛ= (0,1) the ɛ is equal to when 1 when the object is a black body. In this experiment we are using a sensor that is emitting radiation and we must take into account the corresponding
The proportionality constant, R, is known as the resistance and is determined by both material properties (the intrinsic resistivity) and geometry (length and cross-sectional area of the active material). In equation form, Ohm’s law is: V = IR. It is important to understand just what is meant by these quantities. The current (I) is a measure of how many electrons are flowing past a given point during a set amount of time. The current flows because of the electric potential (V), sometimes referred to as the voltage, applied to a circuit.
Doing some algebra, we can then reduce to the expression 〖nτ〗_E≥L T/σv where L is a constant, T is the temperature of the system, σ is the nuclear cross section, or chance that two particles have to collide, and v is the relative velocity of the two particles. Multiplying both sides by T then gives the triple product as a function of temperature. This is useful because it provides a minimum value for the product of 〖nTτ〗_E for a fusion reaction to occur (Lawson, J. “Some”). The exact value of this minimum will change depending on the type of fuel used in the reaction.
The purpose of this experiment was to use charged electrodes on conducting paper and voltmeter to discover electric field. The experiment also discovered the relationship between equipotential lines and electric field lines. The purpose of the experiment was to find if the theory that equipotential lines always run perpendicular to electric field lines hold true. The equation used in this experiment is E = ∆V/∆d. The experimental value yielded a result of y = -100x + 10 and the theoretical yielded a -100 V/m.