The effect of light should be cumulative if light only acts as a wave and little by little the light should add up until it leads electrons to be emitted. But what triggers the emission of electrons is a clear cut minimum of the frequency of the light. What this implies is that energy is directly linked to frequency and more energy with the higher light frequency. The discovery of the phenomena that the minimum amount of energy which could be gained or lost by an atom was a result of this observation. This minimum amount was named by Max Planck as quantum, plural of which is quanta, meaning how much.
Thermoelectric effects The thermoelectric effect is direct conversion of temperature differences to electric voltage and vice versa which comprises of the Seebeck effect and the Peltier effect. 2.3.1 Seebeck effect Seebeck effect is named after the German physicist Thoman Johann Seebeck whom discovered it in 1821. Seebeck effect basically is the concept of conversion of temperature differences into electricity. He first discovered this when he found circuit made from two dissimilar metals with junctions at different temperatures would deflect a compass magnet. He initially believed that this was due to magnetism induced by the temperature difference.
Electricity and magnetism relation was proved by Michael Faraday when he ironically, was trying to prove that electricity and magnetism are not related. This also made him discover electromagnetism the product of the two combined. Oersted proved the relation as well when he demonstrated that a compass needle doesn’t point North when next to a wire with a current going through it. Heinrich Hertz discovered a very interesting relationship which is electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic radiation happens when a wave carries a strong electric field and a magnetic field is in a part of the wave.
In other words, large quantities of coal (or wood) had to be burned to yield only a small fraction of work output. Hence the need for a new science of engine dynamics was born. Most cite Sadi Carnot's 1824 book Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire as the starting point for thermodynamics as a modern science. Carnot defined "motive power" to be the expression of the useful effect that a motor is capable of producing. Herein, Carnot introduced us to the first modern day definition of "work": weight lifted through a height.
In 1821, the Estonian physicist Thomas Seebeck discovered the first part of thermoelectric effect in which conversion of heat into electricity was discovered. Later, this effect was more explored by the French physicist Jean Peltier, and this is why sometimes we call it as Peltier-Seebeck Effect. Then the second part of this thermoelectric effect was found by William Thomson (also known as Lord Kelvin (for whom the absolute Kelvin temperature scale is named)), in 1851. He discovered the heating or cooling of material by moving electric current through a material. This process is also called as Thomson
He proved the rays were negatively charged energy known as electrons. Cathode rays occur when electric current is driven through a containment where all gas has been pumped out. Ernest Rutherford, A student of JJ Thomson proved his plum pludding structure wrong. A series of experiments showed that alpha particles passed through gold foil, pointing out that in beams of energy, not all particles passed through gold foil, as said by JJ Thomson. He concluded that the atom not only had negatively charged particles, it also contained positive
Schrodinger's work on atomic structure and subatomic theory, along with Heisenberg's uncertainty principle which states that the velocity and position of an electron cannot be measured at the same time are the fundamental ideas behind quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics is the study of quanta: fundamental particles such as electrons that have the characteristics of both waves and particles; almost like nets of energy which particles interact with. Quantum mechanics is a much broader subject than the study of relativity, and has successfully accounted for the electromagnetic, strong nuclear, and weak nuclear forces, but gravity is the outlying factor which general relativity accounts for beautifully, but quantum theories cannot comprehend. Logically, if one theory accounts for three of the four forces and another theory accounts for the fourth, simply putting the two together would yield the much coveted unified field theory. The complications of this come about because the imposition of these theories on the same scale would make the universe a much different place.
In physics, this device is known as resistor. Resistance is also the scientific word used for proportionality in physics. In consonance with Ohm's Law, Current increases whenever Voltage increases at a exact ratio and this ratio is known as the resistance. We confirmed this in the lab when we used different voltage measures and we found that the resistance always remained consonant. Resistors can be arranged either in series or parallel circuits.
It is a measurement of how quickly a reaction occurs. The rate of a reaction is directly proportional to the reactant concentrations and the temperature of the reactor. (Schaller) The problem at hand is that the reaction kinetics is not known and need to be determined to understand the reaction more thoroughly. There is a hypothesis that the reaction kinetics is exactly the same for different types of reactors. The purpose of
During this period, great advances researches were made in the extraction of metals from ores and metallurgy. The Englishman Robert Boyle in 1661 published The Skeptical Chymist, which described the relationship between the pressure and the volume of air. More important, Boyle defined an element as a substance that cannot be broken down into two or more simpler substances by chemical means. This led to the detection of a large number of elements, many of which were metals. In the 18th century, the English clergyman Joseph Priestley (1733-1804) discovered oxygen gas and found that numerous carbon-containing materials burn dynamically in an oxygen atmosphere, a process called