2 protons are released into the thylakoid space through the splitting of a hydrogen molecule. The cytochrome complex uses the energy it gains from the electrons from PSII to pump protons in the thylakoid space. This then creates a concentration gradient of protons in the thylakoid space. Since protons are released through photolysis and are pumped in through the cytochrome complex, a concentration gradient is formed. To achieve equilibrium protons would tend to go out through the ATP synthase.
There will be a stir that helps distribute the heat evenly all through the water. A temperature probe determines the amount of heat given off and converts it to joules. Components of a Bomb Calorimeter The main elements of a bomb calorimeter are: • Dewar or insulating jacket: is the body of the calorimeter which is made up of a doublewalled flask of metal with a vacuum between the two walls to prevent the transfer of heat.
When the bicarbonate ions collide with hydrogen ions, it produces carbonic acid. Carbonic acid, then decomposes and creates water plus carbon dioxide. The water and carbon dioxide are incorporated because of temperature. Temperature is the measure of the average heat or thermal
Introduction Heat is the form of energy, thermal energy, which flows between two substances due to their difference in temperature.1 The measurement of heat flow is called Calorimetry and the apparatus used to measure the heat flow (temperature change) for a reacting system is called a calorimeter. The calorimeter is well-insulated device that help to minimize the heat exchange between the system being observed and its surroundings. In this experiment, simple calorimeter, coffer cup calorimeter containing Styrofoam cups is used. Calorimeter contains a thermometer and a stirrer.3 Thermometer is typically inserted in the calorimeter to measure the change in the temperature that results from the reaction. Stirrer is used to keep the contents
Just like respiration, photosynthesis has two phases but they do different things. The first phase is the Light Phase where chlorophyll absorbs red, blue, violet light (energy) to produce ATP for the dark phase and to split H20 into hydrogen and oxygen. The light phase can only occur when light is present. The second phase is the Dark Phase also known as the Calvin Cycle. In this phase it uses the ATP produced from the light phase to join atmospheric CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) to the H2 (Hydrogen) to make C6H12O6
The hydrogen can be reused in the fuel cell, while the oxygen will be used to create a breathable atmosphere for the crew. The reaction also creates a methane product, which can either be vented out into the atmosphere or stored for possible use in
I. Introduction This experiment uses calorimetry to measure the specific heat of a metal. Calorimetry is used to observe and measure heat flow between two substances. The heat flow is measured as it travels from a higher temperature to a lower one. Specific heat is an amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of anything one degree Celsius.
These proteins swap the electrons to send hydrogen protons from the inside of the mitochondria to the outside. This creates oxygen as I product which joins with the hydrogen’s from FADH and NADH to create H2O. Once on the outside the protons want to come back inside the mitochondria. This can be done through ATP snythase. This causes a spinning mechanism that forces ADP and phosphates together to form