With that in mind, each individual 's role in a society where mercantilism was practiced had the end goal of making their country increasingly prosperous. Therefore, the role of citizens in an absolute monarchy where mercantilism was practiced essentially was to obey the laws of the monarch, and contribute to the growing wealth of their country. They contributed by buying goods and materials manufactured by their realm, as a portion of their money used to purchase items was sent back to the monarch. Individuals in charge of monopolies, however, were responsible for communications with merchants regarding the domestic, and international trade of their resources. The role of the monarch in this economic system was to ensure the safety of monopolies within their colonies, as the productiveness of resource extraction heavily affected the amount of gold and silver the monarch
In socialism, people make collective decisions as to what the directions of the social and economic progress should be, and then empower their representatives to implement them. In capitalism, the sum of the actions of free individuals is considered the best for the society as a whole, and the government should accommodate these private actions and should not have any ideological agenda as to what the directions of the social and economic progress should be. The Marx quote that “The philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways; the point is to change it” is interpreted by socialists as the moral base for the organized society to identify the desired direction of progress and forcefully apply necessary policies to achieve this goal. Supporters of capitalism believe that philosophers should not go beyond interpreting the world, and that the organized society should not establish any policies shaping the future, that the progress should be whatever happens as a sum of the actions of
Lenin, in a socialistic way, redistributed land, which allowed the peasants who’d been landless before to own property. “...what became known as the New Economic Policy (NEP) had emerged from the ruins of civil war. The central feature of the NEP was the right of individual peasants to sell their products freely, locally, or nationally, to private traders, direct to other individuals, or to state agencies. Trade was resumed on a national scale, with most retail trade in private ownership” (Davies et al. 8).
His argument is that the farmers in the Southern Plains are more concerned with turning a profit than the land or what they are doing to it. According to Worster, these farmers only view the land as only having commercial value. By only seeing the land as having monetary value, the farmers of the Southern Plains continued to exploit the land and its resources. This over farming is a result of a capitalist need to cultivate the earth in order to achieve a maximum profit. Worster hints that capitalism is the root of all the problems during the Dust Bowl and is often mentioned throughout the book.
It was these movements that paved the way for an emerging ideology, neoliberalism, which promised individual autonomy, greater choice, personal responsibility, and meritocratic advancement (McGregor, 2001; Sample, 2002; Fraser, 2013). At the macro level, neoliberalism promotes free trade, privatization, less state interference, and deregulation. The neoliberal ideal places the market in a position of paramount importance and endorses the belief that all human activity should be brought under its scope of influence (Sample 2002; McGregor 2001). Correspondingly, efficiency is viewed as the most important function of the economic system. Neoliberal enthusiasts feel that the most efficient way to allocate resources is by releasing private enterprise from Government imposed regulation and distributing them through mechanisms of the market.
Money also became a commodity through acceptance of international Gold Standard which deprived the political authorities of the regulation of money. Polanyi’s main argument on this emerging process of the market society, in the contrast to Smith, that the market economy cannot emerge by itself basing on so-called tendency to barter in human nature. He argues by referring to research on modern anthropology and history of trade and
Colbert based his economic ideas off of mercantilism and eventually his system became known as “Colbertism”. Colbert’s new system was based around the idea that in order to increase the wealth of a nation it must export more than it imports. The first step in Colbert’s plan was to create regulations and standards for industry production and enforce harsh punishments if these standards were not met. This ensures a level of quality out of France that increased France’s general wealth. Next, Colbert gave private industries special privileges within the economy in order to promote prosperity within France’s private sector.
Wealth has been the focus of almost all economic inquiry because most economic activity aims to produce wealth, if not for private, individual use, then for public consumption or for use as capital for further production. The idea of wealth has changed over time, however. In the early preclassical and the preclassical times, the wealth of states and countries was measured differently from how it is measured today. Before the industrial revolution had taken place, agriculture was the main mode of production, and the philosopher-economists and thinkers, unsurprisingly, thought about wealth in terms of agricultural output and costs of production. Scholasticism was a movement led by priests and members of the church, who wrote and published many pamphlets and books about combining the economic activity at the time with religious guidelines as set by the Bible.
Andrew Carnegie was another major trust, that controlled the steel industry and stated in the Gospel of Wealth (1889), that if a person consumed wealth, they’re supposed to live frugally and use the extra money to help people in need (Foner, Voices of Freedom, II, 28). “During the Gilded Age, large numbers of businessmen and middle-class Americans adopted the social outlook known as Social Darwinism” (Foner, Vocies of Freedom, II, 32).William Graham Sumner however, represented Social Darwinism (a derivative of Charles Darwin’s theory), in order to oppose Andrew Carnegie’s theory; Sumner believed that we can’t separate from racism and he advocated “survival of the fittest”. Many opposed of, Social Darwinism, including, Henry George a journalist who wrote “Progress and Poverty” , in 1879- George wanted to prevent the economy from advancing into a depression therefore his solution was the ‘single tax’. The
He wrote that the wealth of those societies in which capitalist modes of production prevails presents itself as an immense accumulation of commodities and he defined a commodity as a useful item produced in order to create a surplus for the capitalist. Considering this difference between Marx and Deboard it's fair to say that the episode 15 million merits tells the story of an ideological spectacle that is the spectacle diverts people's political impulses, away from resistance. The screens keep people from leaving their bicycles but in the Black Miroro episode Nosedive we get a little closer to a true Society of the spectacle that is if we try to imagine an economy rather than a merely political spectacle. The first episode of the third season episode called nosedive gets us closer to that goal now technically there still is a world of work and money but the plot doesn't involve those aspects of society. In the world of the plot characters aren't motivated by money but by representations of themselves the characters creates images that themselves they represent themselves to the world and to each other by posting and liking things on social media and the accumulation of stars that they'd received.