Down syndrome is a very common genetic disorder. 1 in every 691 kids are born in the United States has it according to the National Down Syndrome Society c. Symptoms of Downs include: mild to moderate mental disability, stunted growth, low muscle tone, and thyroid issues, higher risk for Alzheimer’s and heart failure. (Genetic Disorders Sourcebook, Third Edition) (Transition: Now that you have a better understanding of what Down Syndrome is, let’s take a look at the 2 most common ways Trisomy 21 occurs) II. Although there are more than two ways to acquire the extra 21st chromosome that causes Down Syndrome, I’m only going to cover the two most common. a.
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION A. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Chromosomal abnormalities which frequently cause physical and cognitive abnormalities for a child throughout life are usually evident at birth. Nondisjunction, deletion translocation, mosaicism, and isochrosome abnormalities are some of the various forms of chromosomal abnormalities (Hatfield, 2008). Nondisjunction is the most common type of chromosomal abnormalities which occur through uneven chromosomal division. During cell division of the cells reproduction, the 46 chromosomes should be divided into half having 23 chromosomes in each new cell.
There are also other influences such as family that affects a child’s personality. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, the birth order of a child affects the way his or her personality develops. Dr. Kevin Leman, author of "The Birth Order Book" states that the oldest child is likely to be more responsible than his or her younger siblings, self-confident, determined and a natural leader. The youngest child usually tries very hard to gain the attention of his or her parent, and the middle child tends to be more introverted and impulsive. The environment that children grow up in also impacts the type of personality characteristics they develop.
This disorder occurs when chromosomes fail to segregate properly during meiosis I or meiosis II. Down syndrome can either be trisomy 21, mosaic Down syndrome or translocation Down syndrome. Trisomy 21 is when the patient has extra copy of chromosome 21 instead of the usual 2 copies in all cells. In the case of mosaic Down syndrome which is very rare, “patient has some cells that contain extra copy of chromosome 21 which is caused by abnormal cell division after fertilization” (staff 2014). Translocation Down syndrome occurs when part of chromosome 21 becomes attached to another chromosome before or at fertilization.
Most people avoid thinking of the idea of having one of their future children born with a genetic disorder. But this is not a realistic thought. A study made by the National Down Syndrome Society (2014) found out that about one in every seven hundred babies in the United States is born with Down syndrome, a chromosomal disorder caused by an error during the cell division. This results in an extra copy of the chromosome 21 which alters the brain and body development. People with Down syndrome are born with intellectual disability, some characteristic facial features and cognitive delays.
The hearing loss might occur any time in one's life because of the illness or injury. The ear infection (see appendix 2 ) is an example of conditions for causing the acquired hearing loss in children.It is very common during childhood.It happens when the middle ear have the inflammation. It can be painful. Second is the toxic medications to the ear. Some medications can harm for the ear and causing for hearing loss, ringing in the ear or balance disorders.
Quality of Life related to oral health, speech and social wellbeing among the children with cleft lip and palate---A literature review ABSTRACT Cleft lip and palate (CL/P) is most common congenital deformity and also present with many syndrome condition. Child with CL/P face difficulty in early breast feeding due to improper lip seal and nasal regurgitation, thus compromising nutrition of new born. Patient with oro-facial cleft deformity needs to be treated at right time and at right age to achieve functional and esthetic wellbeing. It affects physical health, social health and language development of child . The birth rate of clefts was found to be 1.09 for every 1000 live births.
But still unacceptable death and disabilities continue. Although utilization of postnatal care within a week after delivery plays a crucial role to success of the GTP II by having healthy mother and new born, it was neglected across the country (15). In Abi-Adi town, utilization of any postnatal care was 11.9%. About 82% of mothers didn’t think as postnatal care is benefits both for them and their children (16). Lack of awareness, Marital status, using continuum maternity care like ANC follow up and delivery at heath facilities, place of residence (distance), culture, number of children were major factors affecting utilization of post natal care services.
The group of children with Down syndrome have more distinct features as compared to the normal children. Physical defects that are more well known include head that is wide and short, narrow eyes tilted to the side, much thicker lips, slightly bigger and protruding tongue and saliva trickling out most the times. Apart from that, some other effects include the level of intelligence such as experiencing mental retardation. Down syndrome can also affect the development in children where there is a need to attend special educational class instead of the normal
Children with Down’s syndrome do learn to walk, talk and be toilet trained, but in general will meet these developmental milestones later than their ordinary peers and find it difficult to form relationships. o ADHD/ADD: Children with attention deficit and/or hyperactivity face many difficulties as they grow up. As infants, those later diagnosed with ADHD are often described to have been excitable, irritable, colicky, or inconsolable. Often they are very physically active, easily distracted, and can be extremely sensitive to sights, sounds and touch, which can make traditional soothing methods seem ineffective. o Hearing impairment: Hearing is a critical part of language development, communication and learning.