Annotated Bibliography Books Dudley, William, et al., editors. Police Brutality. D.L. Bender, 1991. • Police Brutality gives information on how police brutality is a widespread issue in the United States and explains different controversies and cases that relate to police brutality.
Racism means hate towards another race and injustice mean unfair treatment, according to learner 's dictionary. In Just Mercy, Bryan Stevenson, an African american lawyer, was helping people get justice for the colored community. Another book similar to Just Mercy is, To Kill a Mockingbird, which made in 1960 was written by Harper Lee. Harper Lee addressed many issues about racial injustice too. Just Mercy was written in 2014, In modern day society, racial injustice has a big impact in this world today, as stated in Just Mercy and To Kill a Mockingbird.
The article’s objective is to identify why some city governments have managed to change the corruption equilibrium while others have failed. The article achieves its objectives by analysing the example of the Hong Kong city government and its success in managing corruption in the police force. This article is significant for the intended audience, city governments, and police heads if they want to understand how they can manage corruption in the police force. It has been written in a language this is easily understandable by the intended audience, and
A comparison between the Due process model and crime control model Within the criminal justice system, there are two competing models: the crime control model and the due process model. These two models were constructed by Robert Packer and each represents a particular school of thought. In managing crime, there is the individual i.e. the suspect and there is the society. The due process model is seen to focus on the suspect whereas the crime control model focuses on the society.
The African American revolution started in 1950s represented a range of protests by black people against segregation and for freedom. They chose direct action to reach their goal – “they marched, picketed, went to jail, and suffered harm, pain and inhumane acts” (Letter from Birmingham Jail). After the protest in Alabama has failed, Martin Luther turned to Birmingham, where his house and family was set under attack because of his active position. It resulted in his more active participation and organization of further opposition. In the letter, Martin Luther described Birmingham as “probably the most thoroughly segregated city in the United States.
Understanding police corruption: socially acceptable or a taboo? Looking back at the history of policing in the United States of America, the first era of policing was known as the political era. During the political era, political influence was enormously involved in policing. As corruption became a challenge for policing, the policing models were reformed. The professional or reform era ascended due to the impact of the steps taken to separate police works from the influence of local politicians (Kelling & Moore, 1989).
In spatializing blackness, Rashad Shabazz opens us to better approaches to consider the social control of Black bodies in the constructed urban condition. Shabazz points of interest the prejudice driving the controlled development of African-American men, going past dull examinations of group policing and the self-fault of rebellious African Americans carrying out violations. Drawing from a scope of sources, for example, verse, the compositions of Richard Wright and James Baldwin, journals, daily paper chronicles, maps, and optional multidisciplinary academic sources Shabazz gathers a variety of heavenly subtle elements to recount a convincing Chicago story of the detailing of American Black urban masculinities through a basic geographic focal
In some cases, police harassment simply meant people of African descent were more likely to be stopped and questioned by the police, while at the other extreme, they have suffered beatings, and even murder, at the hands of White police. Questions still arise today about the disproportionately high numbers of people of African descent killed, beaten, and arrested by police in major urban cities of America. Since the mid-1900s the words law enforcement and policing have been used interchangeably. In order to understand the present, one must understand the past relationships between law-enforcement and African-Americans. The Webster’s Unabridged Deluxe defines black as of the darkest color; opposite of white ; a Negro; dirty; evil; wicked; without hope.
As stated in its name, police must collaborate with the community and use other resources apart from polices’ to prevent and solve crime. According to the U.S. Department of Justice’s Office of Community Oriented Policing (2011), they defined community policing as a philosophy which supports the systematic use of partnerships and problem-solving techniques, to address the immediate situation which affects the public safety issues like crime, social disorder, and fear of crime. As the community policing is difficult to evaluate, some specific strategies had been used to represent community policing in evaluations. The first strategy would be “neighbourhood watch” where the residents and community members themselves increase their watch and monitoring over their own neighborhoods. There are also other strategies involved which is to increase the flow of information from the community to the police through meetings, officers having conversations and tightening their bond with the community, storefront beat offices as well as providing crime information to public through Internet, letters, social media, crime maps and also “reverse 911”phone calls so that they are able to protect themselves (Sherman et al., 1997).